Liang Zhun (梁准)

Liang Zhun (梁准)

廣州人,九○年代到四川發展。她是中國國家高級攝影師,也是作家,重心放在民族攝影,善於呈現故事面的人性情懷。

"Ah-zhun" (AZ) is a photographer and reporter from Canton who has lived in Sichuan for the last fifteen years, researching the ethnic minorities of southwestern China. She has taught photography in two universities of Chengdu, and is a member of the Chinese Society for Ethnographic Photography. She has volunteered in the areas devastated by the Sichuan earthquake for more than five months. She is now starting anew as the chief editor of "A-Z cultural enterprise, Shanghai", a company specializing in cultural exchange and creation.

週二, 28 十月 2014 00:00

2014年德日進哲學思想研討會

2014年10月19日,德日進哲學思想研討會── 「德日進和人類未來」在北京盛大舉辦,約有一百位與會人士。

本次活動是中法建交50周年紀念系列活動之一。主辦單位為北京語言大學首都國際文化研究基地與法國德日進之友協會(Association des Amis de Pierre Teilhard de Chardin),協辦單位是法國學院(Institut Français) 與北京中國學中心(The Beijing Center for Chinese Studies)。

在大會上,魏明德教授執導的紀錄片《德日進與中國》受到非常熱烈的歡迎。

其他教授的發言也引起與會人士極大的研究興趣。黃慰文教授發表<德日進和中國地質學>,王海燕教授發表<德日進思想簡介:向前,往上>,梅謙立教授發表<從現代中國文化看德日進思想的意義>與李天綱教授發表的<德日進與中國>等均深深吸引大家的目光。

作家楊道爾吉評述德日進寫於薩拉烏蘇的詩作呈現詩人與詩人的會見,以及劉鋒博士對網際網路進化和德日進精神智慧圈的分析格外引人入勝。

在法國德日進之友協會成員汪暉的主持下,與會人士就德日進的相關課題相互交流,極具深度與廣度。

最後,大家一致決定對德日進思想的探索與傳播繼續努力耕耘,並預定於2015年在薩拉烏蘇舉辦新一輪的研討會,紀念我們所敬仰的思想家德日進逝世60周年。

週二, 08 三月 2011 14:55

天堂的顏色

在我心中,稻城是天堂。

而天堂最讓我感慨萬千並刻骨銘心的,是天堂的顏色。

 

 

週二, 07 八月 2012 17:07

蘇州之夏,水波滌心


 

不似西方花園建築講究對稱、幾何之美,中國的園林建築係將自然山水凝於一方空間裡,以呈現天人合一的意境。蘇州古典園林即為箇中代表,其以流動的水,連結了園林中錯落有致的亭台樓榭,帶出疏朗、秩序的恬靜,流洩東方文化的內斂底蘊。在張揚的夏日豔陽底下,順著那柔軟又堅毅的水,天地倏忽沁入觀賞者心中,抖落了一身的繁華喧囂,也釋放了那俗世的煩擾困頓。

 

suzou02

蘇州拙政園

濁水供養荷色青

窗櫺框住了三面荷塘環抱的樓台,定格了時間。

在這一瞬間,人與荷展開了一段對答:

「都說出汙泥而不染,你如何能紮根於水中淤泥,卻直挺出水面,向著陽光長出一片清新?」

「猶如處在滾滾濁世的人們,若能堅定本心,不也能穿透矯飾偽裝,還其質潔光明?」

 

 

suzou03

蘇州拙政園

虛實之間水為鏡

平靜之水不起波瀾,澄明如鏡。

信步迴廊間,你以為水面上的層疊樹影,不過是水面外一草一木的映照。

透過鏡頭的獵取才發現,水中之景竟比雙眼所及來得開闊寬廣;

那溢出視野之外的,都在水面上一一顯影。

「虛」如何大於「實」?

會不會,我們所堅信的眼見為憑,只是一種有限的真實?

 

suzou04

suzou05

上「蘇州滄浪亭」;下「蘇州網師園」

水利萬物而不爭

萬物生長難離水;

如同庭園裡的這一方水,不論優遊其中的魚,依傍而生的樹木,生活於此的人們,

皆能安居其所,安適其心,因而顯現出恆定的靜謐。

在人法自然所建造的庭園中,

我們見到的不只是具體而微的天地一隅,而是從中讀到了老子所言:

「上善若水,水善萬利而不爭」

若能仿效水德與世無爭,

那麼,這世間也就沒有什麼可以和我們爭了。

 

 

週三, 28 十二月 2011 18:07

Summer in Yangjuan Pass


I have travelled many times to Liangshan Prefecture, home of Sichuan’s Yi minority. Reporting on festivals in Zhaojue, Puge or Meigu counties, I have taken countless photographs and made many Yi friends, whom I like to visit each time I am back in Liangshan.

It was only during the summer of 2006, however, that I went to Yanyuan County, in the western corner of the prefecture. I was accompanying a French scholar, Benoit Vermander, to Yangjuan village. Yangjuan has more or less become a household name in Liangshan and Chengdu, as a school has been built there thanks to the efforts of Benoit, Professor Stevan Harrell (University of Washington in Seattle) and many friends from Chengdu and other parts of China. Not only does Yangjuan enjoy the benefits of a good primary school, it has also embarked on a variety of experiments: summer educational courses, hydraulic works, sheep rearing and following the lives of young migrant workers… Most of these experiments are small-scale, which is actually an advantage because it allows for trial and error, involvement of the villagers, and potential duplication in other places… Even if the experience remains limited in scope, Yangjuan is a kind of social laboratory.

In fact, “Yangjuan” is not the official name of the place. This community is officially part of Baiwu Township, in the north-central part of Yanyuan County. The area is beautiful, with streams and cliffs, fields of buckwheat, corn and sunflowers. There are mountains on all sides, rich with forests of Yunnan Pine and hundreds of species of plants. Sheep, goats, horses, cattle and pigs graze in the pastures. However, I know that in wintertime, things are different. Everything is barren, water is sorely lacking, people are cold, malnourished and often sick without reliable medical care. Development is needed, but local people must be the actors of the development process.

What made summer of 2006 so special was also that Benoit was not alone this year. He came with his younger sister, his brother in law and their four children (7 to 13 years old); all of them arriving directly from France. Going to Yangjuan when this is your first trip to China is most certainly not a banal experience!

These pictures document this extraordinary summer at a remote village in Liangshan, where friends come together every summer, to forge a tiny part of a better future…

{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/focustale/yangjuan/*{/rokbox}

週三, 28 十二月 2011 17:45

Shiqu, the birthplace of King Gesar

 

The district of Shiqu (Serxu in Tibetan) is located on the border of the Ganze Tibetan Prefecture (Sichuan) where it belongs, the region of Tibet proper and Qinghai province. More than a thousand kilometers away from Chengdu, at an average altitude of 4.526 meters, and twenty-five thousand square kilometers large, the district harbors a population of seventy thousand people, almost all farmers, surviving a severe climate (an average of 1.6 degrees below zero, and record cold dropping to 46 degrees below zero). The miracle is that this area is the one where began to be composed the epic of King Gesar, considered the longest poem in the world. The district also claims to be the birthplace of this legendary Tibetan king. It also keeps the longest wall of Mani stones, and a "city" dedicated to the souls of dead heroes.

 

The photographs gathered here gives testimony to a world with no equivalent. The Barge wall, 53 kilometers away from the district township, is located between a mountain and the sacred waters from which emerges the Yalong River. Started in 1640, repeatedly repaired and expanded since then, the wall now extends over a length of 1.7 kilometer, and its height ranges between two and three meters. The majority of stones that adorn the building are Mani stones (or simply "manis"), which are so called because they are carved with the famous mantra “om ma ni padme hum” ("the mantra of the six syllables" or “drug yi ge pa” in Tibetan). But the Barge wall also comprises more than three thousand stones decorated with representations of Buddhist deities, and about seven thousand stones inlaid with various sutras.

As to the "funeral city" of Songge, it is composed of a wall nine feet high surrounding an accumulation of stupas, through which the visitor circulates as in a maze after having entered through a back door. Its wall (which extends 73 meters from west to east and 47 meters from north to south) is also composed of Mani stones, sutras carved in stone and a sacred iconography, among which the few scholars who have been able to come there are able to identify representations of King Gesar and thirty-General of the State of Ling of which he was the overlord. At the very center of this construction stands a well, the depth of which has not been probed. The construction of this "city" began around the eleventh or twelfth century. It is probably a kind of memorial for the heroes fallen during the wars fought by King Gesar. The epic sings the repentance finally shown by the uncle of King Gesar, his hardened opponent, after he had killed several heroes. The funeral city would then have been built as a sign of atonement.

Nomadic tribes still live in the area. They bring along with them sacred vessels and erect a “portable temple” in a tent wherever they have decided to camp. The whole region is marked by such extremes of hardship, poetry and faith…

{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/focustale/shiqu/*{/rokbox}

 

週三, 28 十二月 2011 17:23

Muli, an ethnic frontier

Muli is a tiny multi-ethnic county at the southwest corner of Sichuan province, nearby Yunnan province. On its west, lies the Ganze Tibetan autonomous prefecture. Muli itself is officially called a “Tibetan autonomous county”, though it is located within the “Yi Prefecture” of Liangshan, the Yi being another important ethnic group of Southwest China.

In this multi ethnic county, and contrarily to their neighbors, the Tibetan population is little prone to migrations, as tourism prospects are opening up (although much more timidly than in adjacent Yunnan province) with the re-assertion of the Tibetan character and culture of the area. Overall, one third of Muli’s population is Tibetan, around 28 per cent is Yi, 22 per cent Han, with a number of other minorities completing the census. Tibetans in Muli take advantage of this cultural trend and of the investments that go with: rebuilding of the main three Tibetan temples of Muli County, stupas and other Tibetan artifacts constructed near the mountain lakes… Other minorities, especially Yi people, are prone to leave the area in search for job, especially since state industries have been closed. If the mountain landscape is stupendous indeed, Muli township looks to the passer-by as a sad little place, cut off from the outside world during the rainy season from mid July till end of September.

kangwu_temple_az_011

Before 1949, Muli’s Grand Lama was the main political power in the area, a fact attested by Western travelers such as J. Rock and A. David-Neel. Muli housed three major Tibetan temples. In late July 2007, I went to one of these temples, Kangwu (Kulu in Tibetan language), and discovered the ruins of an imposing building burned down during the Cultural Revolution. Before this period, up to 550 monks were staying there. In the eighties, a small temple was built nearby, and 16 monks were living there at the time of my visit. They were in charge of supervising the rebirth a new, imposing Kangwu temple… This was the beginning of the second year of this large-scale endeavor. Tibetan craftsmen from neighboring Daocheng county had recently arrived. The structural work having been completed, it was now the turn of sculptors and painters to enter into action.

On this particular afternoon, the current Grand Lama of Muli was supervising the work.  I had the feeling of being at a special moment in time, standing between past and future, taken between the shadow of a temple existing no more and the mirage of a new one slowly coming to existence… These pictures testify to this enlightenment, to my sudden grasp of the impermanence of things.

{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/kangwu/*{/rokbox}

All pictures taken in July 2007

週三, 28 十二月 2011 17:19

Fashion Show in the Mountains of Yunnan

The Yi People (彝族) in Yongren County, Yunnan Provinve, annually organize a grand fashion show during the month of January. The fashion show begins when the women most renowned for their expertise in the art of embroidery walk and dance in a parade, to display both their embroidered costumes and dances. Later on, other women join them, while the men just watch on. When evening comes, unmarried youths go to dancing parties. The fashion show day is therefore a day of beauty contest and lovemaking.

{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/focustale/saizhuang/*{/rokbox}

週二, 27 十二月 2011 00:00

The Festival of the Birth of the Prophet in Pi county, Sichuan

[sigplus] Critical error: Image gallery folder stories/focustale/hui is expected to be a path relative to the image base folder specified in the back-end.

 

 
The Festival of the Birth of the Prophet is one of the three most important Islamic festivals, it commemorates the birth and the death of the founder of Islam, Muhammad. On the 5th November 2006, the Festival of the Birth of the Prophet was held at the Pitong township mosque in Pi County, Sichuan. Before the festival, after the mosque's imam, Ma Rugang and the director of the management committee of the mosque, Ma Junru, have carried out prepatory arrangements for the festival, Muslims come to donate grains, oil, meat and money, and arrange for a groups of people to take responsibility for grinding the flour, buying certain items, frying flour-and-salt sesame oil cakes, cooking the meat and other dishes, the other odd jobs that the festival entails are all carried out by Muslim volunteers.
 

The Hui people see the different tasks surrounding the festival as good works, therefore, they often strive to outdo each other. Everyone takes part to decorate the gate, the main hall and the surroundings of the mosque with lanterns and streamers, and banners, the banners commemorate the calligraphy of Muhammad with Arabic writing, as well as incorporating slogans celebrating the festival. The festival normally lasts for two days, on the first day people come to the mosque in the evening to recite scriptures in praise of the Prophet, after the worship ceremony a symposium is held, the second day is a more formal commemoration. At the appointed time, the Muslims bathe and change their clothes, dressing up and congregating at the mosque to recite scripture, praise the Prophet and worship. The imam pronounces the main events in the life of Muhammad, his achievements and his moral character, as well as exciting historical tales about the hardships undergone in missionary work, of wisdom and bravery, of skill at debating and of war, instructing the Hui people not to forget the teachings of the Prophet, and to be good Muslims.

On this day Muslims also have to "taw/ba" (توبة rendered in Chinese as 討白 tǎobái), which means to repent. The Hui people believe: "Men are not sages or saints, how are they not to sin? To know thy sin and to correct it, that is the greatest of acts." (Chunqiu Zuozhuan: Xuangong Ernian). "Taw ba" consists of making up for their former misdeeds, asking God's forgiveness, promising not to continue in sin, and commiting oneself to this new course in life through good works. After the ritual, they dine together. Dozens of table laden with dishes are spread, everybody makes merry, in a feast together. As to those who had contributed to the meal by donating in the spirit of Niyyah (نیّة rendered 乜貼 niètiē in Chinese: the intention one evokes in his heart to do an act for the sake of Allah) but are unable to come themselves have to rely on friends, relatives and neighbours to bring a flour-and-salt cake for them to try1.

What makes the feast of the Prophet so special is that the people come together to praise the Prophet, the people donate things for a common goal and that the people eat together, which shows how united the Hui people are, and how they celebrate the festival imbued with the spirit of friendship. The Hui people of Pi County invite Muslims from the surroundings of Chengdu and even Aba Prefecture to celebrate the feast of the Prophet with them. As well as its ritual significance, this day is an opportunity for Muslims to interact with each other, the imams discuss theological issues and preaching methods with each other, and the Hui people wish one another well, and talk about all kinds of things, in an atmosphere of great joy. A group of students who, off their own backs, set up a Muslim student society at Sichuan University and Southwest University for Nationalities, volunteered to serve as stewards for the festival.

Translated from the Chinese by Conor Stuart, photos by Liang Zhun

{gallery}stories/focustale/hui{/gallery}

 


1. Interestingly Chinese sources ascribe the origin of this flour and salt cake as what Abu Ayyub al-Ansari prepared for Muhammad when his house was chosen to host the Prophet on his arrival in Medina, and was even purportedly named by the Prophet as 油香 yóuxiāng , although this cake does not appear in English language versions of the life of the Prophet. For Chinese version of the origin of this cake see here.

 

 

 

週三, 21 十二月 2011 17:25

Napa Village

The district of “Shangri La” (formerly called Zhongdian, before a name more prone to attract tourism was adopted in 2001…) is located on the north of Yunnan province, on the southern side of the Tibetan Plateau. The district is located on the frontiers of Yunnan, Sichuan, and Tibet, with an altitude of about 3380 meters above sea level.

Besides a renowned temple and the ruins of another one, the township proper has not much to offer the passer-by. But its surroundings are full of stunning human and natural wonders. One of them might well be Napa village, about 12 km from the township. It is in the middle of a natural reserve, set up by the government in 1980. There are 41 families, farmers and hunters, totaling a little less than 300 inhabitants, whose houses are grouped together. A gate signals the entry to the village. The lake below it is called “Napa Sea” and is renowned for the back-neck cranes that spend the winter there. It is not even a lake actually, but rather a depression, totally filled with water during the rainy season.

The primary school in Napa village stops at the third grade. Volunteers, coming mainly from Shanghai, have been offering summer courses for a few years already. Whenever possible, teachers supported by outside funding try to offer courses during the year, so that children may get a more advanced education. The same volunteers’ team also offers physical check-ups and other services aimed at local, sustainable development.

Ascending the mountains that surround the village, visitors can discover the enchantment of Tibetan forests and pasture. Now more open to the outside world and mastering the Mandarin language, young villagers act as guides, slowly developing an “eco-tourism” from below. Still, the life is far from being rosy: young girls are still carrying heavy loads of wood in prevision of the harsh winter months. Though eco-tourism is on the rise, the illegal cutting of trees occurs on a large scale. Paradoxically, it is even on the rise, because of the boom on constructions in traditional Tibetan style coming from the rise in tourism activities. Like in the whole of southwest China, the model of development is still debated, and a choice has to be made between rapid enrichment and the preservation of resources that prove to be rare and precious, even in the privileged natural environment of Shangri-la.

{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/focustale/napa/*{/rokbox}

週三, 09 十一月 2011 11:51

Breathing and Painting

"What I try to paint is the very breathing that makes me paint." This is the way Benoit Vermander introduced his works during the opening of his exhibit at DPARK, Shanghai (November 5-30). The seventy ink and oil paintings gathered in this beautiful location were mainly organized around three topics: faces, birds and forest. But each time, explained Benoit, the underlying element was the breeze - the inner breeze that makes the face change and come anew to the light of the day; the breeze that supports the flight of the bird; the breeze that makes the forest palpitate and become the place where one wishes to wander and lose oneself.

Chinese paintings and oil paintings seemed to be melting into one, as the one and the same breath guides the hand that painted them, beyond differences in techniques and cultural undertones. The breath of the painter became the one inhaled by the visitors who had come to take new strength and inspiration in a show made even more poetic by the large windows of the main exhibit room, opening up on a landscape of high-rise buildings and slowly balancing bamboos....

bendu_shanghai_dpark_02

bendu_shanghai_dpark_03

bendu_shanghai_dpark_04

 

週二, 14 九月 2010 12:37

地球牧歌---《從羊圈小村到地球村》的讀后感

一種羊和圈的世界

在互聯網的搜索中,鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈小學是和法國文化年、和歐美國家的人類學聯系在一起的,是和繪畫攝影藝術展覽等聯系在一起的,也和我的藏區同行人梁准聯系在一起的。 在有關數字的記載中,羊圈小學隻有這麼幾項:在白烏鎮的面壩村,職工人數 6人。經營范圍是小學,注冊時間 1999年,校長,沙開元。然而,羊圈小學卻是中國第一個走向地球村的鄉村小學。

--- 作者 周渝霞,四川作家協會會員、詩人

 

《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書則表明羊圈是和地球聯系在一起的,是和作者魏明德先生聯系在一起的。

寫這篇評論的時候,梁准說我有幾個理由應該提筆——一是我是屬於鹽源的人(曾經是那裡的知青,對當地的風土人情頗為了解;二是我對李星星以及魏明德等學者在人類學、社會學方面成就的理解;第三個理由就是和梁准一同跑了幾年藏區,對於一些民族問題有自己的一些看法和見解。

於是我再次捧讀這本書,再次體會魏明德先生的描述,再次品讀那些對我來說既熟悉又陌生的圖片。

鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈村地處閉塞偏遠的小涼山山區,是一個自稱為諾蘇的彝族村落。鹽源是我在70年代上山下鄉的地方,那裡是衛城羅加村,和羊圈村的直線距離為60公裡,車行距離為90公裡 。

最早聽說羊圈,是同在鹽源上山下鄉,現在做人類學研究的李星星告訴我的,他說在那裡和幾個國外的學者友人開辦了一所小學,他還收養了一位干女兒。后來才得知羊圈因為貧窮和交通不便,1999年之前,學齡兒童的入學率不足60%。孩子們渴望讀書的目光刺痛了到羊圈村做調查的法國學者魏明德,美國教授郝瑞等人,讓他們久久無法平靜。於是有了后面的記載:

以下時間記錄了這些年魏明德等人的工作和努力:

  

*1999年,文化的腳步開始走進大山。
在涼山州民族研究所副所長馬爾子的提議下,法國利氏學社學者魏明德(Benoit Vermander )博士、美國華盛頓翻譯片立大學郝瑞(Steven Harrell)教授、中央民族大學教授巴莫阿依博士、四川省民族類研究所李星星研究員、鹽源人大副主席馬維爾聯合發起籌集90多萬人民幣,在涼山州對外友好協會、鹽源縣縣委、縣政府、白烏鎮政府的支持下,為羊圈村修建了羊圈小學。

*2000年秋季落成,小學開始招生。羊圈小學從此在這塊不毛之地上開始了不平凡的旅程。

*2001年,為了讓更多的孩子讀書,這些熱心的人們專門成立了“涼山教育基金會”,為學校提供日常開支,為畢業生發放獎學金。

*2004年——作為中法文化年文化交流活動的一大項目,這些以“四川小王子”為題的系列作品被帶到法國巴黎、圖盧茲、裡昂和波爾多等地巡展,引起了廣泛關注,成為當年文化交流的亮點。為了進一步增進東部地區人們對彝族的了解,推廣羊圈志願活動經驗,羊圈協會和涼山教育促進會將“四川小王子”搬到上海,和最近兩年新產生的作品共同組成了此次“水墨羊圈”上海巡展。

*2005——中國法國文化年-巴黎,成都.涼山-羊圈攝影繪畫作品展。

這年7月羊圈小學第一批六年級畢業生32名,以優級異的成績考上了中學,其中4名考上了涼山州民族中學,10名考上了鹽源縣民族中學,學校建校以來歷時六年,受到了來自法國、美國和成都、台灣等到海內處朋友的關心和幫助,

*2006.01.以羊圈的名義“羊圈烤肉” 在成都開張。就是每一位顧客要多付一塊錢,作為給遠在小涼山深處的鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈村羊圈小學的捐款。

*2006年12月5日,以涼山州鹽源縣彝族山村羊圈村為題材的“水墨羊圈”攝影美術巡展在上海外國語大學隆重開幕。展出近百幅作品,既有羊圈村的彝族兒童從自己視角觀察生活所作的版畫,也有攝影家在當地拍攝的黑白照片。展覽旨在讓參觀者進一步了解西部現狀,從作品中體會少數民族文化的魅力,並宣傳人文關懷意識,呼吁人們關注西部,以此加強國內外志願單位間的聯系與合作。

*2007年,魏明德先生致力於《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書在大陸的出版。

*2008年4月,在上海“可持續發展的文化資源國際研討會”上,《從羊圈小學到地球村》舉行首發儀式,反響強烈。

 

魏明德的羊圈

一種記憶的復活

時間的腳步,從1999年邁到了今天,快過去10年的時間。羊圈的意義也由單一的羊圈,變成了羊圈小學、從羊圈小學走到了地球村。

魏明德先生從遙遠的法國走到羊圈,他以社會學、人類學、政治學的目光審視著這裡的一切,並開始了他長達10年的愛心援助、愛心奉獻的歷程。

魏明德生於北非,后在耶魯大學就讀政治學碩士,法國政治大學就讀哲學博士,現居台灣,任利氏學社主任,其組織編撰的《利氏漢法大詞典》是目前世界上規模最大的漢語—歐語詞典。1987年,魏明德在法國政府部門工作,偶爾的機會到了四川等地。1994年,魏明德對中國國畫產生興趣,便跑到四川師范大學藝術系學習國畫,有機會進入涼山彝族自治州寫生,此后,他每年有4個月時間呆在涼山。

他的寫作計劃從2000年的時候就開始了,而大量的採訪筆記是在2003年完成。他的寫作目的很明確,就是用他的眼光,一個法國人的眼光來看羊圈,並希望這種眼光牽引著更多的人們去關注這個羊圈或者更多的羊圈。

在魏明德看來,對於羊圈的認識最好的方法莫過於和羊圈本身“保持些許距離,以客觀的態度思考一下住在這裡的居民是什麼樣的人?在這一小塊土地上,甚至整個涼山的諾蘇人又是什麼養的民族?”而我們的法國朋友魏明德先生正是使用這種方法,使得我們在篼了一大圈以后,得到了一種答案——我們都驚奇地發現這個生活在中國土地上的少數民族令人大開眼界,讓人見識到他們豐富且久遠的文化。

用一種文化,來客觀地認識另一種完全不同的文化,這不僅僅需要有客觀的方法,需要有持久的恆心,更需要對文化本身的認識與包容。

魏明德先生做到了,接著,許多法國、美國、內地、台灣等地一批又一批的中外學者和志願者不辭辛苦地來到這裡,教授課程,也在某種意義上做到了。然后是自然科學的勘探水利,改良土壤的人們。

人們試圖改變羊圈的落后的同時,也不斷地用自己的文化融入到了這片土地,在客觀地改變人們的觀念的同時,也改變著自己對於這片土地的認識。

然后是更多的人來了 ,他們試圖從更加廣闊的角度去了解民情、考察民風。其實他們的目的都很簡單 ——使羊圈小學順利辦學,使羊圈村發生了巨大變化,變得越來越現代化、國際化,成了彝家名副其實的“地球村”。

這便是羊圈本身的效應。也是魏明德先生和他的同仁們一致追求的目標。

 


 

 014羊圈本身的效應

羊圈小學,隻是認識羊圈人的一個平台,也是一種文化走向多元文化的平台。至於平台本身的意義也許當初魏明德先生他們並沒有過多的考慮。而對於羊圈人來說,卻是開天辟地的事情,創世紀的事情。

在魏明德看來,“每一個人都依照天主所賜的能力行事……如果我們能自始至終、心存善念地認真對待所遇到的這群人,關心他們的住房、食物、教育、醫療、社區發展……我想這種態度更能尊重福音所帶來的精神。”這種精神的感召可以使得人們在完全自由的情況下有更多的發言和見証的機會。

從最初的辦戒毒中心的願望,到全力以赴地創建羊圈小學,魏明德先生都是義無反顧的,展示著他參與地方人道主義發展的欲望。盡管這看起來有很大的難度。他四處募集款項。他成功了,第一筆經費來自於一個西班牙基金會以及位於巴黎的法蘭克林高中,后來的經費多來自台灣和成都的一些個人捐贈者。

辦一個學校對於我們這個社會來說已經不再是很困難的事情 ,關鍵在於堅持下去。魏明德和他的同仁們“不管多麼困難,我們都要堅持下去”。顯然這種決心和后來的許多困難聯系在了一起。

羊圈是志願者的天地,學校成立的第二年,第一批暑期志願者包括來自台灣的兩名護士,學校的學生和四名來自成都的小學教師,為村庄裡的孩子開設免費的暑期課程,包括衛生課、漢語、英語和美術。2002年夏天,志願者增加了另外兩名台灣的醫護人員、兩名中文教師、四名法國學生,以及台灣陶藝師蔡婉湘,她在村民的協助下,仔細尋找當地獨特的黏土種類,漸漸也集合成一個小小的團隊來參與研究制作技術。2004年夏天,幾乎所有的學齡兒童都已經入學,另外有一些學生來自附近的村庄。志願者的隊伍也從醫護人員、老師擴展到水利學家。如今,志願者們還在源源不斷地前往。每年定期前往開展項目,包括教育、衛生、水利、文化遺產保護等多方面,這一切是值得人們欣喜的,當然也是魏明德先生所希望看到的。

幾年來,“羊圈”成為了志願活動的典范,被推廣到世界各地。悠久的彝族文化、豐富獨特的志願項目和原始的自然風光吸引了來自各國的藝術家。他們創作了大量以羊圈為題材的繪畫和攝影藝術品,並引導啟發當地兒童學習美術。他們還舉辦各種展覽,開展各種文化交流活動,以喚起人們的更多的關注與支持。

羊圈小學不再是一所單純的鄉村小學,它已經成為羊圈乃至方圓數十公裡人們生活中的一部分,也成為當地人從純粹的土地上走向外界的一個橋梁,成為為當地諾蘇人與外界朋友互相交流互相學習的平台。許多藝術家深入其中,見証並記錄了跨文化的交流和當地民族教育的發展。

 

羊圈的思考——一種是世界的扶貧模式

 

作為法國的漢學家、詩人、畫家、人類學、國際政治學學者魏明德(Benoit Vermander)博士,在過去的幾年中,為海內外帶來了“法國學者眼中的中國西部視野”,在這本書裡,

魏明德博士以一位法國漢學家眼光,概述了中國少數民族文化現狀、生存狀況。書中客觀而生動的的描述、覆蓋羊圈人現實生活方方面面的大量精彩圖片,使得我們陌生而又真實地看到了一個被重新架構的偏僻彝族小村,真實而具體地感知了羊圈人的生活脈絡。

我們和書中的人一道聽故事、參加勞作、和遠去的生靈對話,我們在翻閱著書頁的同時,更多的是和羊圈人以及魏明德先生進行著關於心靈的交流和探詢。

真的要感謝魏明德先生。正是魏明德先生通過對物質文明的展示,通過羊圈人一代一代的故事,讓我們在死亡與復活中尋找靈魂的道路,也正是通過對於“羊圈項目”的具體介紹,嘗試揭示在中國現背景下,走進現代文明影子裡的傳統族群,看到西部少數民族在全球民族文化世界中的位置。

也正是這些實地挖掘,精力和精神的投入,研究與思考中。魏明德在與李星星、馬爾子研究學者和來自美國的人類學家郝瑞共同參與了羊圈小學的設立中,他們既成為了朋友,又同時也是地方發展的推動者。這種多重的身份使得魏明德先生採取了更加客觀的科學態度。

就這樣,魏明德先生完成了他從西方文化融入東方文化階梯 ,也在攀爬這個階梯的同時向世人闡釋了他為西部少數民族地區發起各種志願活動的人文關懷理念。

對於貧窮的羊圈來說,羊圈人無疑是幸運的。

1999 年,幾乎與世隔絕的小村庄辦起了學校,打開了與世界之間的通道,此后,大量的志願者和國外訪問學者來到這個地方,並逐漸改變了小村的整個輪廓。2000年9月,羊圈小學成立,第一學年,學校計有130多名學生,至2007年9月,學校招收了270名學生。學校每人每學期收取50元注冊費,其余包括考試的費用便由學校包辦。在魏明德看來,並不完全免費的原因是:一項完全免費的服務在受惠者眼中很容易被貶低其重要性,反而會變相激發較多的缺勤率。

再此后,歷時近10年,魏明德完成《從‘羊圈’小村到地球村——涼山彝族的生活與傳說》一書,並經四川民族出版社出版。

2008年4月,魏明德先生在上海舉行的“可持續發展的文化資源國際研討會”上,舉行該書的簡單的首發式(這次研討會由中國人民外交學會和法國巴黎銀行基金會主辦)。

在這次研討會上,魏明德在羊圈村的實踐也是研討會的議題之一,研討會吸引諸多中外學者到場,這本書的現場銷量十分火爆。

“也許我們每一個人都可以尋找和發現自己的羊圈。已經有了一些想法,但願能早日成為現實。”這是一位關注羊圈的文人寫的感受。我想,魏明德先生的這本書的出版,實際上也為我們做了很好的提示:

世界上還有很多的羊圈 ,哪一個羊圈都需要我們去關注,需要我們去扶助。關鍵在與我們的發現羊圈的能力、眼光和持久耐力。

說到耐力,我很佩服魏明德先生,真的是十年磨一劍,他用十年的艱辛和努力,為我們展示了一部羊圈文明發展史。在這個以快餐文化為主打的時代裡,一些文人、學者的浮躁和淺嘗耶止使得地攤上擺滿了人們唾棄的文化垃圾。我們的文人可以高速度地寫作、出版發行,也可以信手拈來重新組合。和魏明德先生的嚴謹寫作風格以及踏踏實實做學問的態度比較起來,我們還真的有點汗顏。

 

藝術扶貧羊圈成了地球村

 

1999年4月,魏明德第一次踏進羊圈,在羊圈村實地考察並作修建小學的准備工作。此后,在他的影響下,越來越多的人去到羊圈村。

這似乎和藝術本身沒有多大的關系。但任何藝術的創造與成功都來自生活本身。當人們把各類關於羊圈本身的攝影圖片和文字聯系在一起的時候,才發現,羊圈本身就是一個最美的藝術品,是活著的還在不斷發展的藝術品。

從2001年至今,不僅僅是魏明德先生,也不僅僅是人類學者和社會學家。每年,來自法國、比利時、美國以及中國台灣等地的專家、學者、藝術家都會走進羊圈。他們帶來的是愛與希望,他們在這裡播洒科學文明和文化藝術的種子。不同國籍、不同文化的碰撞和交流使得羊圈小學的知名度遠遠高於鹽源縣其他小學。

從某種意義上講,藝術家們已經越來越多地關注並參與到羊圈援助項目中,法國學者笨篤(魏明德)的水墨作品和四川師大李金遠教授的油畫作品,以及一系列的攝影作品,為羊圈援助項目的持續發展做了最好的推廣和宣傳,使得羊圈小學——這個由國內外人類學家聯合發起並募集資金建立起來的鄉村小學,受到更多人的關注和扶持,羊圈小村也成為國內外學者田野調查的基地和西部扶貧援助計劃的典范。

對於羊圈來說,藝術帶來了希望,世界在給予關注的同時,引發了一系列的募捐,也帶去了關愛與和平。

對於世界各地的學者(尤其是文化學)來說,羊圈是他們認識中國的基地,他們將目光投向這塊土地,十年間,羊圈小學接待了上百位的國際文化學者及慈善家。而在當地拍攝照片,收集民俗資料,展開自然科學研究,也已經逐漸成為了一個模式。在宣傳當地的同時繼續為小學,小村的發展籌集資金。

對於魏明德先生來說,羊圈得到了某種福音,那是他作為研究學者和文化學者所能夠滿足的最大的心願——“從觀察和採訪的角度去敘述一個諾蘇小村的人們的基本生活、精神寄托和內心期望並以此觸動讀者的情感和心靈;或者說,通過我的敘述,人們可能會真正理解我們這些志願者在這個諾蘇小村所進行的教育、衛生和水利設施等方面的工作的價值和意義,雖然我們的整個援助計劃在許多的方面尚未全面實施。”

盡管如此,我們看到的 還是一個被世界打開的“羊圈”。

 

魏明德的羊圈村生活

 006

十年了,在魏明德眼中,羊圈沒有圈,羊圈村是個沒有廣場,沒有正規街道,沒有店鋪,也沒有專門的祭祀場所的小地方。

在魏明德的採訪中,羊圈人又有自己的圈——他們豐富的神靈和充滿理想的信仰與儀式

使得羊圈人以自己獨有的古老的文化走進了地球村落。

在魏明德的描述中,羊圈人的物質生活簡單到極致。在他們看來:種子撒進地裡,陽光、雨水、土壤和神靈就會掌管一切。土地出產什麼,他們就吃什麼,他們種什麼,也就吃什麼。土豆、玉米和蕎麥是他們的主要食物。從一開始,魏明德就試圖將羊圈變成一個“另類的世界化交流中心”,諾蘇人、成都人、台灣人和法國人等可以聚集在一起並且相互學習。這一夢想很快實現。其實,我們從書中也感覺到魏明德先生的擔憂,這顯然不僅僅是對於一所學校的后續發展和存在擔憂。

在魏明德的書中,學校的建立,對羊圈究竟帶來了怎樣的影響,魏明德希望和讀者一起尋求答案,“應該有正面的東西,也有負面的東西。”他在書中寫到, “我們的原意是為了讓這個地方更富有生命力,但這樣一來是不是更導致村裡所有受過教育的年輕人為尋求工作而遠走他鄉?我們是否打開了潘多拉之盒?”

游走於世界各地的的文明的魏先生顯然也注意到了羊圈小學以及羊圈本身所發生的變化。他尤其感覺到了“羊圈村在劇烈變化之中,也許是我們帶給了他們改變,又也許是中國本身就在改變。”

反思是必要的,尤其是在經歷了十年的風風雨雨之后,作為政治學家的名義的反思尤為深刻: “羊圈的變化,更多在於觀念的變化,他們知道了外面的世界,對金錢有了概念,所以外出打工去尋找更多賺錢的方法。”他們同時非常自卑,他們意識到自己被邊緣化。一個年輕人告訴魏明德:“活在大山裡,人生好痛苦。”而羊圈人的反思則更為強烈,外來的文化和理念對於本土的沖擊,現代文化對傳統文化的沖擊使得這種反思顯得尤為沉重和慘烈。

反思的痛苦程度則是魏明德先生所始料不及的。他作為地方發展的推動者,思考的問題卻遠遠比描述和記錄的困難得多—— 羊圈終究是要被打開的,不是自己就是外力,人們終究要走出羊圈,但“外出本身並無壞處,但是他們終將回家,回家之后,做什麼,這是個問題。”

學校仍將繼續下去,基金會開始行使了自己更加貼切的工作方針——有針對性的進行教育,在課程開設上增加了更加實用性的課程,如為外出打工的年輕人開設了怎樣開設銀行帳戶、寄信、買車票和坐公交車等實用課程。針對留守在村子的村民則開設如何使玉米收成更好的農業知識培訓課程。

“有一天,羊圈裡或許沒有羊,羊圈的小孩或許一個個都會離開家鄉,到他方生活。不過這種種記憶、經驗和所有的計劃終將伴隨著他們前往。更重要的是,他們也會向其他人述說——信息將由此傳遞出去。”魏明德以這一段話作為全書的結尾,顯然是意味深長的,這也許就是魏明德先生對於羊圈本身的最好的注解。

 


 

羊圈的美圖與設計

梁准的笑容

今年春天,也是陽光燦爛的日子,梁准帶給我這本厚厚的書。從它的裝幀設計的獨到,它魅力無窮的黑白色彩以及內容的詳實、圖片的真實度,都給人以驚喜。

“大氣!”記得這是我當時脫口而出的一句話。以我多年經營圖書的經驗,我的直覺告訴我,這是一本資料性豐厚 ,可讀性較強的人文地理叢書,當然也是一本非常好的人類學、社會學的著作。

那一刻,梁准笑了,笑得很燦爛。

感謝梁准,讓我先睹為快。這個常年在艱苦的民族地區奔跑的堅韌女性,以她對少數民族的熱忱和特有的善良,不斷地採集著民族文化的精華,不斷地推廣著民族文化的內涵,不斷地傳遞著民族文化的魅力。她或者在苗寨、或者在羌寨和婦女們聊天,或者在高原、峽谷的藏區拍攝。

這幾年我們一同在康區採風,見証了她工作的瘋狂和眼光的獨到。

在到羊圈的大量的文化人當中,有一位女士是扛著攝影器材去的,並在那裡拍攝了大量的人文圖片,那就是梁准。

梁准用一句簡單話語概括了她對羊圈的感受:“我們打開一扇窗看到了羊圈,羊圈也通過一扇窗看到了外面的世界。”

  

梁准式的拍攝原理

 yangjuan

《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書,讓我再次見識了梁准在拍攝少數民族人物時的獨特眼光與深厚的攝影功底。

收入這本書的圖片,有這樣幾個特點讓人記憶深刻:

首先 是扣准人文主題,准確地把握被攝者的目光和心靈。書中有大量的圖片是人物。心地善良的梁准,也是善解人意的梁准。這使得她能夠細致入微體驗到當地人的生存狀態和心理狀態,從而准確地把握被拍攝者的眼光所表達的內心感受。在“羊圈裡的小學生”一章中,梁准的圖片瞄准了孩子們自然、純真的笑容和天真活潑的本性,從這些孩子身上,看到的不再是一個封閉的彝寨、不再是一個遙遠的山村,而是一種希望、一種向上的感悟;而“病痛纏身”一章村民刻在臉上的苦痛與無奈讓人揪心;從事各種農事勞作的羊圈人的勞動場景,則讓我們聞到了來自土地的氣息;在畢摩深邃的眼裡,我們則讀到了來自遠古文明的痕跡和屬於靈魂的東西。

其次,配圖的准確度。梁准踏實認真,精益求精的工作態度和敬業精神一向為人稱道,攝影師和人文作家的雙重身份,使得她對文字和圖片同樣敏感,為這本書文字與圖片的融為一體打下良好基礎,每段文字都有適當的照片與之相配,並附有高度概括性的圖解說明,文宇與圖片相互補充,相互呼應,相得益彰,圖文的緊密配合,相互交融也成為這本書最吸引人的地方。梁准對細節的拍攝和關注尤其打動我,在拍攝的時候,哪怕是很小的一個細節,她也絕不含糊。從書中的圖片中,我們能感受到這種魅力無處不在。

那一幅牽手的圖片,一隻白皮膚的外來者的手,一隻黃皮膚的羊圈人的手,不同膚色的手的相牽,世界就變得如此之小,不就是手和手的距離麼,當我們的手握在一起的時候,世界便沒有距離,羊圈不再是單獨的羊圈,而是世界的羊圈,是地球村的羊圈。這就是梁准的圖片所要表達和傳遞的的理念。還有濃縮諾蘇女人一生的那雙手,簡直讓人觸目驚心,難以忘記。

在扉頁上那幅一個人一匹馬、一片地、一片天的小圖片中,似乎在牽引著我們從地球走向羊圈。而在目錄之后的放大的圖片中,那人、那天、那地、那馬都給了我們更多的刺激與感受。如果說魏明德先生的簡歷和誘人的目錄使得我們有了閱讀的欲望,那這幅圖片給我們的感覺就不僅僅是欲望本身,而是要去實現這欲望,如同梁准走進羊圈一樣,我們在接受行前的叮嚀——這裡沒有浪漫與悠閑,隻有蒼涼與悠遠,隻有高天與厚土,有走進羊圈的人,也有羊圈走出的人……

那個趴在牆上遠望的孩子,是在羊圈土生土長的孩子,他頭上戴的耐克帽子也許是來自外國老師的贈與,他趴在羊圈的牆上,但他眺望的卻是羊圈以外的地方或者更遠的地方,也許他的未來就如那棵白楊樹,那是鹽源獨有的鑽天楊,可以長得很高,直到天上,也可以覆蓋很寬,直到地球以遠。這便是我理解的隱藏在前言圖片中的深刻含義。

第三,也就是梁准特色——激情。我們在書中圖片裡讀到並感受到了許多激情,那是屬於梁准的特有的激情,可以打動和感染無數人的激情。可以想像,在羊圈的梁准一定也和我們一起跑康區的時候一樣投入、忘我,甚至忘記了時間,也常常忘記了他人的存在。她或者爬上高山、或者深入峽谷,那橘紅的攝影背心如一片楓葉出現在田間地頭,出現在農家小院、人流乃至叢林。我常常在海拔4000-5000多的高度看梁准如飛的腳步和拍攝時美麗的倩影。

梁准——一個用生命擁抱自然的執著的追求者,她對自然和生命的熱愛而迸發的激情使我們許多的朋友為之贊嘆和感動。

 

 

 富有創意的裝幀設計

 

特別要提到的是在這本書的的編輯過程中,梁准更是傾注了許多的心血。她自己設計版式,根據作者的思路、內容進行文字編排和配置圖片。

梁准的編輯思路也是令人感動的。憑自己對於羊圈的理解,也為了尊重魏明德先生,注重圖配文,而不是文配圖,始終將文字放在第一位,圖片隻是作為文字的補充,選擇用黑白圖片配圖,而這一大膽的設想讓人頗感意外——因為這是個攝影師不斷地以出大的彩色圖片為傲的年代,並且梁准也有大量彩圖儲備。

在照片的排版上,堅持大圖配小圖,單幅照片與組照相結合,滿幅照片出血版等靈活多樣的技巧運用,避免圖片單調呆板的排列帶給讀者的視覺疲勞。

選擇羊圈孩子們所畫圖畫,魏明德先生的手稿、素描等做配圖,都顯示出本書設計上的獨特創意。一稿、二稿……到最后的定稿,工作量之大,工作之瑣碎繁雜,非常人所能忍受,其中的酸甜苦辣,隻有梁准自己最清楚,但我們看到的永遠是她燦爛的笑容。

正是這樣富有創意而又保持原汁原味的設計理念保持了這本書原生態的展示以及文化本身的厚重,這是人文類書籍非常值得推崇和借鑒的地方,也是除內容外我喜歡這本書的另外一個理由。

如果說,在書中魏明德先生致力於羊圈的真實記錄,使我們讀到了羊圈的歷史、現狀和 人們走向世界的願望和理想,或者他們之中的無奈。那麼梁准則用圖片注解了羊圈的靈魂,使我們看到了真實的羊圈,真實的羊圈人和古老的羊圈文化。

 

攝影/梁准

如需購買《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書,請連系 梁准 Email住址會使用灌水程式保護機制。你需要啟動Javascript才能觀看它

 

 

 

 

 

週四, 01 十月 2009 01:23

Pingwu county after the earthquake

Today, most of the Qiang people live in the area of Wenchuan and Beichuan in northern Sichuan, near the epicentre of the great earthquake that shocked the whole region on May 12, 2008. Some of the great stone towers guarding the old villages collapsed. The human, economic and cultural damages were such that one could fear for the very survival of the Qiang.

In Pingwu County, one can still witness, standing side by side, the ruins of old houses and new construction funded by the State. Local authorities hope to build a tourist economy based on a standardized but more lucrative version of Qiang traditional culture.

{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/stories/thumbnails_video/AZ_pingwu_earthquake.jpg|}media/articles/AZ_Qiang_Pingwucountyaftertheearthquake.swf{/rokbox}
第 1 頁,共 2 頁

捐款

捐款e人籟,為您提供更多高品質的免費內容

金額: 

事件日曆

« 十二月 2017 »
星期一 星期二 星期三 星期四 星期五 星期六 星期日
        1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31

目前有 4727 個訪客 以及 沒有會員 在線上