Erenlai - 按日期過濾項目: 週六, 30 九月 2006
週六, 30 九月 2006 20:58

Water in China: For reference

A short press selection of paper articles on China’s environment and water problem in 2006

Jan 6, 2006 asia times
China’s threatening environment
By Nathan Nankivell

(…) There is little disagreement that China’s environment is a mounting problem for Beijing. The country is one of the world’s leaders in sulfur emissions, but with only a fraction of the vehicles of most countries; China is home to 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities; water pollution affects as much as 70% of the country; air pollution is blamed for the premature death of some 400,000 Chinese annually; crop returns are steadily decreasing in quantity and quality because of polluted land and water; and solid-waste production is expected to more than double over the next decade, pushing China far ahead of the United States as the largest producer.

Environment faces ’fragile’ balance
By Li Fangchao (China Daily)

Excessive logging, degradation of natural pasture land, shrinking wetlands, overuse of pesticides and fertilizers in farmland and contaminated coastal areas are just some of the major problems the country faces, according to China Ecological Protection, the first overview report released by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA).
The release of the report coincides with World Environment Day today, and the national theme is to promote "Ecological Safety and an Environment-friendly Society."
"The Chinese Government places great importance on ecological protection and has adopted a series of strategic plans," the report said. "As a result, the ecological environment in some key areas has improved," the report said.
"But due to the meagre per capita resources and regional disparities, the deterioration trend of the country’s fragile ecological environment as a whole has remained unchecked," said the report.
Among the findings are:
The ecology of 60 per cent of the country’s territory is considered fragile. A national study in 2000 rated the ecological quality of one-third of the country’s territory as good and another third as bad.
About 90 per cent of natural pasture land, which accounts for more than 40 per cent of the country’s territory, is facing degradation and desertification to some extent. Desertified pastures have become the major source of sand and dust storms.

China solves insecurity in drinking water
Updated: 2006-06-05 10:23

China has completed more than 800,000 rural drinking water projects in recent years, solving difficulties and insecurity in this regard for 67 million rural residents, says a white paper entitled Environmental Protection in China (1996-2005) issued on Monday.

The Chinese government has launched campaigns to build towns and townships with a beautiful environment and ecologically advanced villages in recent years, pushing forward comprehensive control of the rural environment, according to the white paper released by the Information Office of the State Council of China.

China is concentrating on the demonstration of comprehensive control of pollution from livestock, poultry and fish breeding, and non-point pollution in Taihu, Dianchi and Chaohu lakes, as well as in the Yangtze, Zhujiang and Yellow river deltas, the white paper says.

Some provinces and municipalities have beefed up control of the village environment and improved village infrastructure, and made progress in treating rural sewage and waste and controlling agricultural non-point pollution, according to the white paper.
The government has, as well, started the investigation of soil pollution and demonstration of pollution control throughout the country, and set up a system of testing and controlling the security of agricultural products, the white paper says.

It also strengthened the environmental security control of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, popularized high-efficiency, low-toxicity and low-residue pesticides, and prohibited the use of high-toxic and high-residual pesticides in the production of vegetables, fruits, grain, tea and Chinese medicinal herbs, the white paper adds.

The government also prevented non-point pollution brought about by irrational use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, farm-use plastic sheeting and wastewater irrigation, so as to ensure the security of agricultural products, according to the white paper.

China, at the same time, encouraged the development of eco-agricultural projects that closely integrates breeding industry with crop farming, the white paper says.

Diversion of the Shiyang River for irrigation has turned Qingtu Lake, foreground, into a plain. The Badain Jaran desert, rear, is fast sweeping the area, near Minqin.
Published: June 8, 2006
The New York Times

Yet a desert pincer is squeezing this struggling oasis town, and China’s long campaign to cultivate its vast arid northwest is in retreat.
An ever-rising tide of sand has claimed grasslands, ponds, lakes and forests, swallowed whole villages and forced tens of thousands of people to flee as it surges south and threatens to leave this ancient Silk Road greenbelt uninhabitable.
Han Chinese women here cover their heads and faces like Muslims to protect against violent sandstorms. Farmers dig wells down hundreds of feet. If they find water, it is often brackish, even poisonous.
Chinese leaders have vowed to protect Minqin and surrounding towns in Gansu Province. The area divides two deserts, the Badain Jaran and the Tengger, and its precarious state threatens to accelerate the spread of barren wasteland to the heart of China.
The national 937 Project, set up to fight the encroaching desert, estimated in April that 1,500 square miles of land, roughly the size of Rhode Island, is buried each year. Nearly all of north central China, including Beijing, is at risk.
Expanding deserts and a severe drought are also making this a near-record year for dust storms carried east in the jet stream. Sand squalls have blanketed Beijing and other northern cities, leaving a stubborn yellow haze in the air and coating roads, buildings, cars and lungs.

Especially noteworthy is the excellent series of articles on the Yellow River, International Herald Tribune, November 20-22.
Report on the Yellow River, International Herald Tribune-Asia

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