Erenlai - 按日期過濾項目: 週三, 03 十月 2012
週三, 03 十月 2012 18:31

打折,也打倒了獨立書店?

─談圖書公平價格的推動

撰文|諶淑婷(台東大學兒童文學研究所碩士班學生)

 

「到書店看書;上網路買書」已是我們習以為常的消費模式。

標價並非售價、滿額折扣加碼、紅利回饋再抵……買賣書如今像秤斤秤兩還能掐頭去尾的價格遊戲。

然而,買書的你,可知這並非商務科技與市場經濟的命定演化,而是書產業鏈持續走偏鋒的結果?

 

全盛時期曾有上百家書店的台北市重慶南路書街,近年僅剩下二十間,近期又有四家書店打算轉型或歇業,其中包括二十多年歷史的儒林書局。非連鎖實體書店正在急速消失中,讀者所失去的除了日常逛書店的樂趣,還有更多。


資金補助能救書店?

今年夏天文化部舉辦多場文化國是論壇,其中第二場次以「我街角的書店哪裡去了」為題,選在新北市永和區的知名獨立書店「小小書房」開講。當日文化部長龍應台對獨立書店多有讚揚,將其比喻為知識策展人,展覽好書與思想;並將其喻為社區情感的樞紐、城市文化的具體指標。

對於台灣有三分之一的鄉鎮沒有書店,龍應台提出的解決之道是將獨立書店視為文創產業,使其可適用「文創法」,以政府資源補助書店經營;或以「圓夢」為名,提供第一桶金,鼓勵青年下鄉開設書店。

在討論官方補助與創業資金是否真為解藥良方之前,我們得先分清楚:街角書店並非所謂的獨立書店,儘管兩者都是小型店面,經營模式與內容卻截然不同。街角書店為大眾取向,賣的是廣受歡迎的暢銷書、漫畫,甚至兼賣文具,與社區生活緊密相連。過去在台灣幾乎每個中小學旁都有一家這樣的社區書店。獨立書店則通常有獨特經營方向(往往反映店主本身的價值觀與關懷),除了售書有專門性或特殊性,也常舉辦講座、讀書會等文化活動。

無論社區書店或獨立書店,眼下都有生存困境。龍應台想適用文創法的對象,應是獨立書店。然而,給予補助就能解決問題嗎?

 

折扣戰擠壓小店家

台灣獨立書店難以為繼,最大原因在於折扣戰。「百大暢銷書籍推出最低六三折超低優惠」、「暢銷書第二本加購六九折優惠」……類似的促銷,你必定不陌生。消費者也許開心買書,但看在出版業與書店經營者眼中卻心驚膽跳。

有十三年歷史的高雄市「五餅二魚」兒童書店,在今年三月結束營業。店家全心投入兒童閱讀推廣,卻不敵低折扣對家長的魔力。常見店員花了半小時,介紹了一本又一本好童書,但一聽到最低九折,原本興致勃勃的家長立刻改口:「我只是來看看。」轉身回家,就上網以七五折買折扣書。不禁讓經營者感嘆:既然餐廳可以加10%服務費,專門書店是否也該收諮詢費?

台北市某外文書店店主也曾和筆者形容,折扣戰讓圖書出版呈現「一片亂象」。過去,出版社發書給經銷商,經銷商送至書店,書店賣書給讀者,產業鏈中每一環節都各自賺到毛利。現在,網站賣書大行其道,卻讓經銷商與書店無法生存。

該位店主說:「原本出版社發書多是七折或六五折,書店最多以九折、八五折賣出;但現在大型連鎖書店和網路書店,卻要求出版社以五折、六折供書,賣書時就可以殺出六五折、六六折的低價。要小型書店如何存活?」

 

急待立法撥亂反正

事實上,小型書店並未坐以待斃。2010年夏天,獨立書店聯盟即曾舉辦「反折扣戰研討會」,希望推動「圖書統一定價銷售制度」立法,以避免書店間惡性競爭。

在文化國是論壇上,立法的可能性又被提起。但出席的公平交易委員會卻表示:公平交易的精神就在「公平競爭」,如果圖書採統一定價,限制轉售價格,已違反現行「公平交易法」;目前的修法方向也只針對部分個案,除非文化部直接提出特別法解套。

但是,獨立書店和連鎖書店、網路書店,真的站在公平的競爭點上嗎?即便是最講求自由經濟的美國,雖不限制書店對消費者的售價與折扣,但亦不允許出版社對不同規模的書店提供不同的供貨折扣,新書齊頭批價,無論賣三十本給獨立書店,或賣五千本給連鎖書店,價格完全相同。此項規定,即為避免大型連鎖書店濫用採購優勢。

 

他國多有經驗借鏡

法國早在1981年即由文化部長朗恩(Jack Lang)提出「朗恩法」(Lang Law),規定新書在出版兩年內的銷售折扣最多只能5%(二手書和換季拍賣則不在此限)。消費者無論在大書店或小書店買書都是同一價格,買書不再是比折扣,而是對書店服務和經營特色的支持與選擇。大型連鎖書店和網路書店因不折扣而毛利增加;出版社也不需虛漲價格欺騙消費者,書價一路平穩。

日本則規定書店銷售圖書價格須與出版社指定銷售價格相同;韓國新書在出版十八個月內不能打折扣;以色列國會也正待通過限制書價折扣的法案……放眼全球,至少約有十七國有類似保護圖書出版銷售的法規。

反觀台灣,既不規範書店在零售端任意打折,也不規範出版社以不同折扣供貨給不同書店。起步已不公平,公平交易哪還存在?「書」確實是在市場交易流通的商品,但書不只是商品,更是一種文化與社會表徵。文化部、財政部、公平交易委員會必須理解推動統一定價的必要性。

 

拒絕折扣豐富選擇

書店經營者少、購書者多,規範價格的論調自然會被質疑:「憑什麼?」事實上,為了衝高銷售量、擠入排行榜,出版社不得不參加折扣戰;為了維持生存,提高定價再給折扣,早已是出版業界公開的祕密。觀察近年書價變化,一本250元的書變280元,300元變350元,打完折回到原價,消費者拿到的不過是「泡沫折扣」(bubble discount),真的賺到了嗎?

倘若有一成、三成、甚至五成的消費者,願意光臨獨立書店、支持無折扣書,讓出版社有勇氣拒絕低折扣供書,也不需配合大賣場與連鎖書店的銷售特性,只出版易售書籍。你會發現,為一本書多付出幾十元,能幫自己找回更豐富的閱讀選擇,拒絕被這場折扣戰左右。

所以,走入獨立書店,買下一本無折扣的好書吧!

 

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十月─南島紀行 台灣青年的踏查與省思

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週三, 03 十月 2012 18:02

沉沒與禁閉之島

太平洋上羅列著許多島,原本遺世,也期待一直隱沒。但漢族的腳步,卻夾著現代化與開發的動人修辭,悄悄來到。從蘭嶼到雅浦,在這些深陷的足跡裡,究竟映照出了什麼?

 

神隱島嶼

Rumung,如夢。中文地圖上不存在的名字。

島民不喜歡外人,因此Rumung也暱稱為禁閉之島——禁止外人進入的意思。

週三, 03 十月 2012 16:51

斐濟的芋頭人生

種芋頭以致富足,烹芋頭以待上賓。

在台灣,這也許是難以想像的事;在斐濟,卻是如呼吸般理所當然。

乍看毫不起眼的小小芋仔,串起了家庭、村落甚至整個社會的層層關係,

斐濟人的芋頭人生,燒燙燙上演中。

 

「我們的收入來源有兩種:長期的,是卡瓦胡椒(Piper methysticum);短期的,則是芋頭,如此而已。」我在斐濟做研究時,最常聽到村落的農人這麼跟我說。

 

一個能夠照顧妻小的真男人,一定要有叢立於田地間的芋頭,以及在樹蔭下一節一節錯綜生長的卡瓦胡椒。尤其是芋頭,在南洋的天空下,一片片葉子迎接著陽光,讓色調稍嫌單調的熱帶島嶼丘陵點上一團不一樣的綠意。

週三, 03 十月 2012 16:30

Panay Raranges: Tourism and Authenticity

My hometown is the Mulating tribal village in Fuli, Hualian, I belong to the Amis tribe and my name in the tribal language is Panay. I’m part of an aboriginal university society in which I’ve participated in a lot of debates with my other classmates concerning issues affecting aboriginal peoples, but mostly this is limited to discussion of Taiwan, it’s rare that we discuss foreign indigenous affairs. When I heard of this opportunity to go to Fiji as part of an international exchange program, I knew it was a rare opportunity that I didn’t want to miss out on. From another perspective, as Taiwanese aborigines and Fijians are both Austronesian, in the process of researching in preparation for the trip, I discovered a lot of striking similarities between the two, these similarities were the elements that I was most eager to explore throughout the course of the trip. Our team held countless discussions both in the selection process and in the days before we departed for Fiji, in the hope that we would learn a lot through this once in a lifetime experience, and be able to share this learning experience with other team members as well as our own tribes. The ten day trip was divided into three main parts: visiting indigenous villages, educational institutions and government departments. As everyone in the team had a different specialty, we were able to get different things out of the experience, and we would share these experiences at the end of each day, and more importantly, we were acutely aware that we were not just a group of exchange students, but that we were also representing Taiwanese aborigines, and each member of the group had a different aboriginal background and experience. With each scheduled visit, we would try to use our hearts to interpret all that we saw and heard, and relate it to our own experiences growing up, this is another important tenet of international exchange.

 

Navala and Koromakawa had a very touristic feel to them, both in their sevusevu welcoming ceremony and in their village tours, you felt that the whole thing was as a result of accumulated and experience, somewhat rehearsed.

Readers in Mainland China can watch it here

On the other hand, however, I discovered a lot about the background of the development of tourism in those villages, and how they struggled to preserve traditional culture at the same time. In Navala for example, all the buildings were traditional “bures”, not as a result of government grants or encouragement, but rather because the village residents took the initiative to preserve this tradition. The ceiling of the meeting house in Koromakawa village was covered in all sorts of totems, these were painted by the women of the village bit by bit standing on ladders. It’s possible that the conservation of traditional culture was an attempt to attract tourists, but even if the motives are suspect, the traditional culture is still being preserved, and it plays a very important role in the everyday life of the villagers. In Koromakawa we asked the spokesperson (the person who spoke for the chief) if they were concerned that the development of the tourism would contribute to the loss of traditional culture, he answered that they were; he told us that because of modern developments, that they had suffered cultural leakage, some ways in which the villagers lived their lives had long changed from the way they lived before, the young people leave the village to work elsewhere, there they came in contact with very modern things, and became accustomed to a new way of life. From the example of Koromakawa, I was able to observe that bringing the tourism industry into the village brought another advantage: that young people were gradually returning to the village to help in the development of tourism there.

The University of the South Pacific is one of the most important universities in the Pacific region, concentrating talented young people from all the different islands in one place. Several professors from the region made time in their busy schedules to hold a forum with us, sharing with us their research and their own experiences. What made the deepest impression on me was the response that we got after our dance performance, and the opportunity afforded us to attend Professor Morgan Tuimalealiifano’s class, and get to know his students who came from a wide variety of backgrounds. I was really moved when we got a rare opportunity to share the similarities between our languages, it was as if a family that had been separated by circumstance had been reconciled. Perhaps our life experiences were very different, but the links between us could be felt in a multitude of little similarities. I felt that the way Professor Tuimalealiifano brought the backgrounds and experiences of the students and the teacher into the discussion was different from the usual model of the teacher just feeding the students a string of impersonal professional knowledge, which really resonated with me and provided a lot of food for thought. When Professor Tumalealiifano was sharing his thoughts about Fijian identity he got quite emotional at times, which just went to show how much of himself he invested in each class, and led me to the discovery that the classroom can be quite an emotional place.

In the course of this trip, I was charged with observing of the legal and political system, in an attempt to understand what channels of communication there were between the government and the villages, how ideas were exchanged between them, and how the implementation of policy concerning indigenous people could effectively incorporate the opinions of the villages, enabling the compatibility of government activities and the expectations and demands of the indigenous people. What struck me most was the extent to which Fiji’s chiefly system was still so intact. This traditional leadership structure of the villages was developed by the British colonists and became the structure of governance for Fiji. The British even set up the Great Council of Chiefs, with the aim of more effectively governing the colony, although it later became an important safeguard ensuring the rights and protecting the interests of indigenous people. Each chief is like an elder of the village, dealing with everything within the village, and collecting together opinions from villagers; he acts as a spokesperson to the outside world for the village, the decisions he makes are a result of consensus amongst the entire village, encouraging close relationships between villagers, and good communication between a chief and his villagers. This interactive model functions within the Fijian government structure in the way the Great Council of Chiefs incorporates the opinions of all the villages represented by each of the chiefs who form its ranks, and through discussion and cooperation work towards a consensus, to influence government policy, and oversee the implementation of policy, creating closer links between the government and the villages, as well as clear channels of communication between the two. The application of the traditional chiefly system into the modern system is an accumulation of long-term experience, even though there have been several political upheavals in Fiji in recent years, the importance of the chiefs in the politics of Fiji cannot be overlooked, which left us with the impression that traditional knowledge and the modern system were not necessarily in conflict. With enough communication and discussion, the two can integrate with one another. Perhaps Taiwan’s situation is a little more complicated, but this makes a good reference point for us. We discovered that the sense of autonomy and initiative among the villages was very strong, although many young people leave the villages to work, you could still feel the presence of traditional culture in the villages was being preserved. Some of the mountain villages had preserved the traditional architectural style, elders and youths in the village took the initiative to teach the traditional building skills to the children in their spare time, hoping to pass on these skills to future generations.

The coastal villages continue to fish using traditional canoes, not only making use of traditional wisdom, but also preserving a sustainable balance in the ecology. The cultural similarities, are essentially that they are both engaged in a Fijian way of life, traditional culture is inseparable from their daily lives, which preserves it, and this again is a very good example for us to reference. To have just such an opportunity to get to know Fiji is, without doubt an invaluable experience, and we were burdened with an important mission, we were most likely a group of young people amongst Taiwanese aborigines who most understood Fiji, and we have a duty to maintain this important link between Taiwan and Fiji, and to share the things we had learned in Fiji with our tribes, this latter is one of the most important objectives for our group. We both belong to the Austronesian ethnic group, we were very excited about discovering the common features between us, using this to try improve our relationship, although the vast Pacific lies between us, but it is this very stretch of ocean that is what connects us, the ocean is not an obstacle, but rather it is a connecting bridge, connecting our languages, culture and even our history.

I haven’t lived in Hualian since I was a little girl, I was brought up in the city and received a modern style education, and was always in search of an identity of my own, but I had forgotten to turn my gaze to the world’s many aboriginal peoples who have never forgotten their own roots, living on with all their efforts for their selves and for their tribe, they told me that having heart is always important, going with one’s heart will always lead you to where you belong. This Pacific connection was not the end of the story, but rather it was an important beginning.

Translated from the chinese by Conor Stuart

週三, 03 十月 2012 16:25

平實之中見偉大

─追憶單國璽樞機主教

單國璽樞機主教於日前安息主懷,他以自己的一生見證了基督信仰,並帶領台灣社會思索生命的意義。

輔仁大學校長江漢聲、天主教高雄教區主教劉振忠以及在耕莘醫院擔任家醫科醫師的戴愛仁修女,他們與單樞機皆有深厚淵源。本刊特別邀請他們撰文,回憶與單樞機相處的點點滴滴,從最尋常的生活中,看見單樞機最真摯動人的一面。

週三, 03 十月 2012 15:48

生命落幕,精神永存

─追憶單國璽樞機主教

單國璽樞機主教終於結束他生命的告別之旅,從此不再會有人質疑:「為什麼還在告別!」

樞機榮登天國為他個人是光榮的事,值得高興地慶祝,但為台灣社會是重大的損失,因為再也看不到他病中帶勁,以柔克剛侃侃而談的身影,以及為病友、為弱勢族群發聲振振有詞的語音,可說是:「哲人其萎」;為台灣天主教會更是萬分不捨,因為他履行「划到深處」的信仰與靈修,「活出愛」的牧靈福傳工作,以及卓越的「獻身與領導」等,都是有目共睹,有口皆碑

追憶單國璽樞機主教

受苦能與上帝更接近

能在單樞機主教在世旅程的最後六個月照顧他,是一項殊榮。他是信仰至誠的人,非常單純、非常謙卑。他這一生過著與主合一的生活,在領導與生活中跨出的每一步,都深深啟發了台灣的教會。

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