Erenlai - 按標籤顯示項目: 侯孝賢
週三, 28 五 2014 00:00

與夢想最近的距離 側寫蔡明亮在巴黎


「我出生在馬來西亞一個小城——古晉,忽然我才想起來,即使在我還沒看過『四百撃』之前,我就是那個安東。每個人都和他的環境有那麼強烈的關係,只是你可能不記得。這部電影描述出這樣的情感。」 ——蔡明亮【註1】

(撰於2009, 原載於作者部落格)

今年五月,蔡明亮以和羅浮宮(Louvre Museum)合作攝製的新片「臉」呈現在法國坎城(Cannes)影展競賽單元【註2】。藉著這部從製作到影片本身都備受矚目的電影的推出,羅浮宮繼而在七月於館內的視聽館(Auditorium)舉行蔡明亮電影回顧展【註3】,以「你那邊幾點」(2000)揭開影展的序幕。該片敘述台北的小康(李康生飾)眷念曾有一面之缘的女孩(陳湘琪飾);時值小康為父親的過世服喪,面對母親(陸弈靜飾)難以接受現實而作出的荒誕行徑,和自身對生命的茫然,他將精神寄託在遠赴巴黎的女孩身上,不僅將所有鐘錶的時間調到法國時間,並觀看關於法國的電影——法國新浪潮(Nouvelle Vague)流派的導演楚浮(François Truffaut)的「四百撃」(Les Quatre cents coups)(1959)。已經年邁的「四百撃」男主角尚-皮耶˙李奧(Jean-Pierre Léaud)並在片中客串演出。

「你」片作為本影展的開幕片,別具意義:回顧蔡明亮從台灣往國際伸展的創作歷程,可以說從該片到「臉」,他往法國、法國新浪潮電影的路徑終於完整地連結起來。「你」片除了圍繞在他的電影向來關注的追悼、失落等主題,更顯現了在台北-巴黎╱台灣-法國二個地方、二種情境之間的擺盪。這表現在身處異地的陳湘琪對語言、文化的陌生和摸索(即使身體不適,仍覺得應該多喝咖啡)、在巴黎漫無目的地遊走,或小康蜷縮在房裡觀看和他所處的時空相距遙遠的黑白片「四百撃」、或在車子裡一邊灌紅酒、一邊吃滷味(台、法文化的夾雜)。並且,該片某部分反映了蔡明亮作為電影創作者和觀者的歷程:以小康觀看「四百撃」的片段向楚浮和演員李奧致敬。影片接著將放映「四百撃」的電視螢幕放大到佔滿整個銀幕,如此而從一個觀影情境過渡到所觀看的影片佔滿整個影像空間,而下一個片段即為小康潛入一間中控室,試圖躲開工作人員而調整報時機器——這種地下、非法的行為一如所引用的「四百撃」片段中,男主角偷牛奶的情節。

在筆者和蔡明亮談論新片「臉」時,他描繪「四百撃」如何開啟、影響他的創作歷程:「我覺得是一部非常特別的電影[...]直到我拍「你」片,我忽然恍然大悟為什麼『四百撃』這部片如此吸引、牽動我。一個很大的原因是它對巴黎的描寫,應該說它對城市、人和城市的關係的描寫」。片中叛逆的小男孩主角經常獨自在巴黎遊蕩,儘管師長處罰他,他從不哭,然而「最後他被抓去關在警察局,和一群妓女關在一起,[...]他被送到有鐵窗的車上。那是夜景,音樂揚起,車開時,巴黎在退後,這個小孩開始掉淚。你會覺得安東這個小孩、或者楚浮他最愛的對象是巴黎,他生活的那個空間。[...]我出生在馬來西亞一個小城——古晉,忽然我才想起來,即使還沒看過『四百撃』之前,我就是那個安東。每個人都和他的環境有那麼強烈的關係,只是你可能不記得。這部電影描述出這樣的情感」。他繼而將這種感受連接到他本身的創作:「我的整個創作就一路開始從內在生活經驗裡面,到最後回到從內在裡再反映出來」。綜而言之,「巴黎最終是什麼? 我覺得就是尚-皮耶˙里歐這張臉的反映、倒影」。【註4】

反觀法國方面,蔡明亮的電影一直受到評論界的矚目以及特定觀眾的關注。七月間在羅浮宮回顧影展開幕式及「大師講座」中,觀眾對他的電影提出各種觀感和問題,一個反覆的提問就是:「為何經常在片中用到水的元素」? 蔡明亮曾回答,「水是維持人的生命一個很基本的東西,或許就像愛情」。但更多時候,他對觀眾的提問保持開放的態度,認為是由觀眾自己去想像或解讀從片中看到的東西。此外,他談到和演員的工作方式:通常不要求演員事先做功課,但讓他們在拍攝之際對情境作出回應。他並特別注意留給演員充分或延長的醞釀時間,「等到他們不再是在演的時候,就會有一種特別的感覺出來」。這令人聯想到「愛情萬歲」(1994)片末,楊貴媚獨自坐在台北大安公園裡哭泣許久的畫面。活躍的法國當代藝術家多明妮可˙貢札雷斯-佛斯特(Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster)即受該片觸發,遠赴台北大安公園的這個場景,創作了錄像作品「台北中央公園」(Parc Central, Taipei)(2000-2008),並從該片及取靈感,注入她的「展覽場」展覽空間規劃中。【註5】

令人印象深刻的是,在巴黎的這些演說和座談中,明顯看到蔡明亮爲創作而持續抗爭的姿勢。在回顧影展開幕式上,他提到聽說在韓國將陸續關閉放映膠捲電影的戲院,「身為電影創作者,我們必需持續抵抗」。在「大師講座」中,他冗長地敘述台灣電影環境的侷限:在他大學時期,台灣電影以武俠片和愛情片為大宗,影片格式千篇一律,就像印度盛產的「寶萊塢」(Bollywood)電影以歌舞和華麗的場面來娛樂工人階級,毫無導演個人的創意。蔡明亮首次踏入影劇界,參與的就是「台灣最後一部武俠片」的拍攝;同時,他看到德國導演法斯賓達(Rainer Werner Fassbinder)的死訊(1982年),極為感慨。

在台灣,這種介於商業和藝術電影的兩難情境延續到今天。蔡明亮比較德國和台灣的情形:「在德國,在法斯賓達之後,有人提出拍商業片,德國政府於是不再支持創作型的電影,因此有人說此後德國電影死了;在台灣,有人說繼侯孝賢以來,台灣電影死了,這則是說侯孝賢這種電影不賣座,從商業票房觀點上的死亡」。蔡明亮表示,自己是在侯孝賢出道後十年開始拍片,他愈加個人化的風格雖在國際上屢屢獲獎,但在台灣幾乎沒有票房,也難以獲得觀眾的共鳴。他於是親自上街頭賣票,並在大專院校等地演講,傳播不同的電影理念,以自身的力量改變一般大眾對「電影就是娛樂」、「影展得獎片不要看」的成見。

蔡明亮在亞洲難以作為電影作者的困境,這在其電影藝術於國際上曝光後,找到了伸展的舞台和攝製的資源。在國外,他和侯孝賢等台灣導演被列為作者導演,繼續以跨國籌資的方式延續創作生命。在《台灣電影導演:金銀島》(Taiwan Film Directors: A Treasure Island)(2005)一書前言清楚地說明這種現象:「今天,所有這些人物快速增長的導演成功已逾二十年,台灣電影已經邁向一個『後新電影』的階段,這是由台灣電影工業的瓦解引起,並迫使人們必須依循國際銷售模式的籌資和製作。2002年[...]這些導演中有幾位的表現形式仍處於顛峰,即使他們往往缺乏足夠的資源來盡可能發揮創意。[...]由於『新電影』呈現的有趣矛盾,台灣電影遂是一種不規則的國家電影:商業區塊的解體是一種藝術性上可發展的電影的一項催化劑[...]『台灣新電影』更進一步協助將台灣——在世界上不具政治定位的島嶼——置於地圖上。[...]它的導演持續爲其作品再注入活力,這也是一種具有歷史意識的電影,被二十世紀的各種文化力量所波及。」【註6】

蔡明亮即是以個人電影藝術語言搭起和國際影壇連結的一個有力的例子。他在巴黎演說的一段話,道出了他對個人創作的堅持:「我很開心可以在[台灣]當代這種狀況下拍這種電影[...]我們的電影是在墳場裡遊走的電影,也因此可以自由地作。但二十年來,我們必須同時和主流抗爭」。【註7】

從大學時期在台北觀看「四百撃」到今天在法國和新浪潮電影成員合作拍攝「臉」,蔡明亮企及了與夢想最近的距離。

1. 除非另外註明,本文引用蔡明亮話語均來自筆者和蔡明亮於巴黎訪談,2009.7.5.
2.關於該片,參考筆者撰文〈凝視與倒影 蔡明亮和羅浮宮合作新片,「臉」〉,刊於樂多網誌。(網頁已刪除)
3.該回顧展及本文提及的蔡明亮大師講座均由今年巴黎電影節(Festival Paris Cinéma)所籌辦,該影展同時推出演員尚-皮耶˙李奧(Jean-Pierre Léaud)的回顧單元。
4. 蔡明亮關於「四百撃」和李奧的其他話語,見〈凝視與倒影〉。
5.見筆者撰文,〈星際間的驟雨 多明妮柯.貢札蕾-芙耶絲特,「展覽場」〉http://blog.roodo.com/sylvie/archives/8196717.html。藝術家對「熱帶」的嚮往,也參考筆者撰文〈錄像藝術的饗宴巴黎「夜裡的影像」大展〉http://magz.roodo.com/article/489.
6. 葉月瑜和Darrell William Davis合著,參考http://funscreen.com.tw/TaiwanMade.asp?S_id=52&period=141. 此處引文由筆者中譯。
7. 此外,《電影欣賞》114期及130期刊有蔡明亮相關訪問及專文,可供參考。


週日, 01 十二月 2013 19:00

The Toad Mountain Community Arts Festival

Text by Nicholas Coulson

The Toad Mountain Community Action (蟾蜍行動 鄰里起哄 藝術節)

One Autumn night in August 2013, a group of our friends had been invited to a local café-bar, Faust (孓孓).  Coincidentally the Good Toad Club, consisting of documentary filmmaker and local Td Mountain resident Lin Ding-chieh (林鼎杰) and NTU Building and Planning (B&T) student Ah Bang (城邦) were inviting film producer and curator Angelika Wang (王亙瑜) to curate a spontaneous community arts festival. As default coordinators of the preservation action, Ding-chieh and the B&P students began to solicit filmmakers, other creative nostalgics and cultural circles with the aim of galvanizing residents and sympathizers to help defend against the imminent demolition of the cultural and social artifact that is the Toad Mountain community. Through Wang came the support of Taiwan’s most highly acclaimed director Hou Hsiao-hsien (侯孝賢) who agreed to show his 1987 film, Daughter of the Nile (尼羅河的女兒) in the Toad Mountain community square, where it had been originally shot.

It was agreed that the spontaneous 10-day 'happening' or action would be held immediately at the beginning of September. Film students or others wishing to make their own short films about Toad Mountain were given one week to shoot and edit them. At the end of the week they could then show these films to the residents and assembled supporters of toad mountain and anyone else interested to accompany the screening of Daughter of the Nile.

Loosely affiliated members of our informal arts and action group, The Hole also took up the Good Toad Club’s invitation to volunteers to release their creative energies in any way that felt fit to revitalize a street from which residents had recently been removed in preparation for the demolition. It fit well with our spirit of DIY and spontaneous direct action, and from this time on we began making our own documentary of the process, edited by Pinti Zheng:

 

clean-up

With talk of demolition beginning that month, time was of the essence. By the next morning certain sympathizers had begun the rejuvenation of the vacant houses in the spirit of spontaneity and non-organized direct action. The middle of the street was cleared out to make it safe for residents walking through. Then trash was given new life. More than just a middle class nostalgia for all things old and pretty objects, the vacated houses were cleaned with a spirit of recycling, re-usage and DIY - the original buildings were themselves makeshift, using whatever leftover materials they could get their hands on. With this spirit the volunteers tried to address the contemporary problems of waste and scarce resources. As time went on, the vacant street seemed increasingly reinvigorated, fit for residents and flaneurs, half-works sprouted up everywhere, individually and as groups we were empowered as we reconnected to the fruits of our labour. Abandoned red lanterns were hung up on both sides of the street. Mini-paper toads stuck everywhere. Abandoned motorbikes were turned into installations. A dozen broomstick heads and a century of lightbulbs had similar reorganisations. A street artist and professional recycler, Uncle Bird (鳥伯), had added his own collections from years of gleaning in Taipei, he was by far the most experienced at finding the functional or aesthetic value of waste. One architecture student gathered together glass shards and forged them into the shape of Toad Mountain, adding a Bodhisattva statue she'd found to give it symbolic protection. A recovered board and chalks was used to make the main billboard for the Community Arts Festival.

clean-up2Another focus of this 'happening' was the relationship between the natural ecology and the city, considering that this community was right at the mountain border and there was a much higher level of interaction between the people and their mountain. Rather than the urban jungle ever encroaching on the natural jungle, we saw this as a base from which nature was re-invading the city: trees were growing through the ruins, smashing through the roofs.  During the Toad Mountain action, these roofless buildings were re-appropriated, turned  into experimental urban gardens, most of the rubbish was cleared out and the space filled with various types of compost. One of the garden volunteers even held a workshop one morning to teach residents and students how to look after the composts, further strengthening the links between the remaining residents and their natural surroundings. The old trees which had prevented the early demolition were also draped in string connected to the buildings representing the inextricable life force existing there between the tree and the land but also the community and the land. Fallen leaves return to the roots (落葉歸根) goes the Chinese proverb, meaning that the elderly return to their homes to die. Was it to be that the elders of this mainlander community were twice denied that fate?

clean-up3The works also focused on the community and its participation. Red string, gleaned from one of the ruins, ran through all the houses on the street, linking the overlooking balconies which previously would have been the focal points of daily communication, something lost in the detachment of high-rise life, a source of modern urban alienation. Indeed it seemed to represent the previous connectedness, the inseparability of the community and how if one part was cut the whole community would fall. In a time transcending reply to a barely comprehensible poem that had been discovered behind a removed mirror, one of the foreign volunteers read a poem about the joy of people gathering, which he transposed onto another wall space with a paler shade  from which another mirror or poster had likely been removed.  Who knew who might rediscover it in the future. The B&T students such as Naijia, Yuwen and A Pei presented their interviews and mappings of the residents houses, along with old photographs, showing how each family  had a worthy story which should not be overlooked in the pursuit of rapid development. At the last moment Chenggong University students Dong Yuci (董玉慈) and Liu Chunjun (劉純峻) also rushed over from their anti-nuclear protest to offer their support, having sewed together several bandages and transposing prints of objects leftover in the abandoned buildings, to show that life was full of pain, but that they had always been able to patch it up again, fitting the fix-it-yourself ethic of these impermanent communities.

Perhaps most successfully of all, the community square was full of residents and sympathisers for the final weekend of performances. For the noise performance "The city's memory is disappearing, we cannot stay silent" by One Night Band, Yu Jun re-jumbled the words of memory which they had collected from resident interviews in A Ming's mobile community recording studio. This video by Sky Lee summed up the weekend feeling: 

On the final Sunday, each household brought a pot-luck dish and there was a full house for the music performances and the film showings, which overlooked the mountain and its iconic radar. The Daughter of the Nile brought the evening to life and following that the filmworks which had been made about the community were displayed on the huge screen against the backdrop of the mountain. It kicked off with the documentary film "Will my friends come out today?" which has since been instrumental in bringing attention to the movement:

一家一菜3 蟾蜍山除了外省伯伯本省媽媽外也有印度人原住民居住於此是文化的大熔爐

It kicked off with the documentary film "Will my friends come out today?" which had been instrumental for bringing attention to the movement. It was then followed by these films.

It had been a blissful temperate night overlooking the mountain, but as they say in England, it ain't over till the fat lady sings. That moment arrived as Lin Ding-chieh's requested that Toad Mountain Marching Forward, the festival theme tune, a cover of Lim Giong's Marching Forward, be sung with its new lyrics. Despite the handing out of lyrics, the rendition nevertheless left the crowds vocally unimpressed and slightly confused. A black dog howled half way through the rendition and the night came to an abrupt, but timely end. For better or for worse, the visibility of the issue at hand had been raised by this ten-day 'happening' and perhaps Toad Mountain was marching to a different future.

Photos provided by Good Toad Club, Sharon Liu, Pinti Zheng, Nick Coulson

尼羅河女兒尼羅河女兒很難在市面上找到放映當天除了在地居民外也吸引許多電影愛好者前來觀賞


週日, 01 十二月 2013 00:00

Liminal Realms at the Mountains and the Margins of Taipei

 

The Mountains and the Margins of Taipei

 

As the second of our two-part feature on nature and the city, Shanshui Taipei, we explore Taipei's mountains. The mountains represent the natural frontier of the city, the border between the natural jungle and the urban jungle, but also the border between a standardized modus operandi of urban living and the diverse community lifestyles on the periphery, detached as they are from the daily reliance on the mainstream structures of the urban core.


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