Erenlai - Economy and Environment 經濟發展VS環保意識
Economy and Environment 經濟發展VS環保意識

Economy and Environment 經濟發展VS環保意識


These materials assess changing trends in the economy and the environment, and how they impact on the future.

高唱經濟發展的同時,中國也看到它在生態環保上所面臨的挑戰。究竟要如何因應呢?當下的每個抉擇都牽動著未來的走向。

 

週三, 07 三月 2007

Downstream Countries

Words and photograph by Moeun Nhean
IPS Mekong Fellowship 2005-2006

No one is yet able to foresee how badly affected Cambodia and Vietnam’s downstream waters of the Mekong River or the Tonle Sap Lake will become. Upstream countries like China have built dams, and many locals in both Cambodia and Vietnam, are voicing concerns about the environmental damage caused by the decreased water levels flowing down from the north.

Dams are not the only problem, growing populations in Cambodian and Vietnamese floating villages are creating more waste and the environment is paying the price. Some organizations are taking steps to turn this around and many living on the country’s great waterways are learning to appreciate the value of their environment.

Nguyen Thanh Ky is a 37-year-old fish farmer at Chau Doc in southwest Vietnam. Thanh Ky says that in the last few years, fish farmers have been facing a string of problems.

"Fish are not surviving in the bé [fish farm]. Five years ago, the fishing was good, and I never had problems with fish dying in large quantities," Nguyen says.

"Today, the number of fish in most bé in this area is decreasing and many of the bé are quite empty of fish. I don’t know what will4 become of our lifestyle in the future. Will there even be a future for floating fish farmers like us?"

"Some people have told me that fish farming is suffering because of water pollution, and even if we changed the type of fish we breed, the result would be the same: they’d die."

Kompong Loung commune chief Kev Sovannareth believes that with the population of floating villages in Cambodia growing at the rate they are, the environment is seriously at risk.

"I remember floating villages with just a couple of hundred people living on them, but now there are many thousands; ten times the amount," Sovannareth says.
"This poses a great risk to the water around the villages now, the water used to be so clear. At some spots you could see the bottom of the lake and fish swimming," he says.

"Many fish have not been sighted for years now; fish like the chpin, the chra-keng [Barbus siaja], a fish found in swamps and flooded rice fields, the freshwater Elephant fish [Oxyeleotris marmorata] and the pruol [Cyprin laveon]."

"The fish are dying because plastic and oil are floating into their habitats … Plastic bags are floating about everywhere on the lake and around the village. They disrupt fishing activities all the time, and it’s popular nowadays to use those plastic bags isn’t it? It used to be the opposite, people would just use banana or lotus leaves.

"But the most frightening thing for me to see is the pollution from engines, from the oil and petroleum leaking into the water. Fish are choking. People’s health is affected and every year many of my villagers get skin diseases. I don’t know what kinds of diseases they are or from where they’re getting them from. But I have an idea, though: pollution," Sovannareth says.

Further south in Kompong Svay district, Kompong Thom province, another commune chief, Heng Monour, is worried about water shortages and illness too. "Many of the commune people get the same stomach diseases and fevers. What if there was a dangerous epidemic of cholera?" Monour asks.

"The river is much lower and our commune hasn’t seen any of the Mekong dolphins for the last five years now. We used to see them here every season," he says.

"The amount of rain hasn’t changed in these parts, but the Mekong is just not flowing from the Tonle Sap Lake in as great a quantity as it used to. When I heard news saying that further upstream, the Mekong River was being dammed, I put two and two together and figured that our water levels are lower now because of the dams."

In a story published in The Cambodian Scene Magazine (July/August 2005), the water levels of the Tonle Sap and its nearby tributary the Dang Tong Lake, were so low in May 2005 that residents in the area discovered an ancient tree, claimed to date back to the 11th century.

Coordinator for Environmental Education at NGO Osmose Keo Yada says Osmose selected Koh Chi Vaing commune in a trial to educate the residents about their river environment and to teach them how to look after it. Koh Chi Vaing is situated on a remote area of the Tonle Sap; people living there are poor and earn money on, and around the lake, fishing, hunting and cutting trees to sell.

"A few generations ago, the water in the Tonle Sap Lake was clean enough to drink, now people get skin diseases from just bathing in it," Keo says.

Osmose, established in 1999, is one of many non-profit organizations working around the Tonle Sap Lake, who are educating these floating village residents about how the future of the lake, and their livelihoods will be affected, if they do not change their habits and protect their environment now.

Besides Osmose, two other NGOs are playing a role in helping protect the Tonle Sap, like the Australian-based Live and Learn - Environmental Education (LLEE) and local organization Mlup Baitong.

Live and Learn country director Chum Som Onn says the organization selected five provinces around the lake to undertake training courses in primary schools: Kompong Chhnang, Pursat, Battambang, Siem Reap and Kompong Thom.

"Live and Learn also work with the local media to broadcast news related to the lake environment. Our targets are those living on the floating villages because they are the people who are affected," Som Onn says.

Keo Yada says the organization’s goal is to educate the younger generations to love and respect their surrounds. "We teach five sorts of lessons to children: forestry, fish, animals, water and pollution. Osmose has already taught over 700 students from public schools and over 200 children who do not attend school. We also teach floating village people how to make floating gardens to grow vegetables," she says.

"Fewer people are chopping down important trees, or hunting rare birds and animals now. They are beginning to understand the importance of looking after the environment. They are also throwing less rubbish into the water, particularly plastic items,” Yada said.

"As for the lake’s water levels, in the six years I’ve worked for Osmose on the Tonle Sap, I’ve noticed the flood season happen slowly, there is less water; while the dry season sucks up all the water very quickly," Keo Yada says. She blames the lower levels on the floodplains on the upstream damming of the Mekong.

Member of the Economic, Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) at the Office of the Council of Ministers Touch Seang Tana says before the dams were built, the Mekong flooded at high levels several times a year.

"All that water covered a huge area, providing irrigation, sustenance and life, for thousands of people and animals in the area. With lowering levels this could destroy the area," Seang Tana says.

----------------------------

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/Nhean_01.swf{/rokbox}

週一, 26 二月 2007

全球暖化敲响世界警钟

【翻译 陈佩芳】

开春2月2日,由「跨政府气候变迁专家小组」(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)成员所发表的一项报告,为世界治理与全球化的历史进程树立了里程碑。该项报告所提出的可靠证据不仅已被广泛相信,并且科学家达成共识的程度和坚定的主张,使「全球暖化」终成无可逃避的事实,而人类活动则是主要肇因。
全球暖化已经改变地球的整体气候,包括引发严重风暴和乾旱。所有的预测皆指出,下一世纪的地表温度及海平面将会上升,气候异变对整体生态系统和人类活动将带来非常严厉的后果。唯有「果决的世界治理政策」才能减缓全球暖化的问题,这也是今春即将发布的进一步报告所提倡的重点。目前的问题在于如何整合以往提出的所有相关论证,将其转化为有力的世界治理政策。
有三件事情值得欣慰。首先,针对气候暖化问题,目前科学家已有足够能力提出精准且具备共识的评估,协助决策者拟出详细的行动方案;其次,全球化提高了全球意识的敏感度,使气候暖化议题引起广泛关注,没有人能冷漠以对或视而不见,包括美国总统以及其他当权的怀疑论者;再者,目前的世界治理机制已能作出具有权威性的评估并著手进行讨论,使其成为条约与国际协定。人类在过去从未有过如此的经验──同时运用科学、政治与文化的方法以因应一项决定世界未来的巨大挑战。实际上,这项挑战错综复杂的程度远胜于以往。
然而,对这暖化的世界而言,这并不意味著一切便可迎刃而解。目前我们所拥有的国际工具,可能仍不足以有效策划执行上述报告中所提到的「果决政策」。「京都议定书」效能的限度提醒我们,国家利益优先的狭隘观点仍凌驾于全球视野之上。因此在技术评估之外,仍需要建立新的国际机制,将各个国家、区域组织、企业团体与公民社会的相互责任网织在一起,如此方有助于在法规、文化及消费模式上产生深层的转变。
在这些有待建立的国际工具中,最迫切的首推「世界环境组织」,其设立应以「世界贸易组织」(World Trade Organization, WTO)的模式为基础。WTO模式的成功之处在于:其管理架构是立基于各国间相互的依存关系,同时由强大的世界会议主体来约束各会员国,促使他们尊重会议上所签署的条约义务。讽刺的是,国际社会愿意竭尽所能发展如此卓越的世界组织,以促进并规范国际贸易,却拒绝付出相等的努力来支持人类赖以生存的生活系统。但愿二月二日的报告成为全球意识提升的潮流变迁指标,而现在也正是我们改变内心气候的时刻!

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/de_editoclimate_cs.jpg{/rokbox}

週一, 26 二月 2007

全球暖化敲響世界警鐘

【翻譯 陳佩芳】

開春2月2日,由「跨政府氣候變遷專家小組」(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)成員所發表的一項報告,為世界治理與全球化的歷史進程樹立了里程碑。該項報告所提出的可靠證據不僅已被廣泛相信,並且科學家達成共識的程度和堅定的主張,使「全球暖化」終成無可逃避的事實,而人類活動則是主要肇因。
全球暖化已經改變地球的整體氣候,包括引發嚴重風暴和乾旱。所有的預測皆指出,下一世紀的地表溫度及海平面將會上升,氣候異變對整體生態系統和人類活動將帶來非常嚴厲的後果。唯有「果決的世界治理政策」才能減緩全球暖化的問題,這也是今春即將發布的進一步報告所提倡的重點。目前的問題在於如何整合以往提出的所有相關論證,將其轉化為有力的世界治理政策。
有三件事情值得欣慰。首先,針對氣候暖化問題,目前科學家已有足夠能力提出精準且具備共識的評估,協助決策者擬出詳細的行動方案;其次,全球化提高了全球意識的敏感度,使氣候暖化議題引起廣泛關注,沒有人能冷漠以對或視而不見,包括美國總統以及其他當權的懷疑論者;再者,目前的世界治理機制已能作出具有權威性的評估並著手進行討論,使其成為條約與國際協定。人類在過去從未有過如此的經驗──同時運用科學、政治與文化的方法以因應一項決定世界未來的巨大挑戰。實際上,這項挑戰錯綜複雜的程度遠勝於以往。
然而,對這暖化的世界而言,這並不意味著一切便可迎刃而解。目前我們所擁有的國際工具,可能仍不足以有效策劃執行上述報告中所提到的「果決政策」。「京都議定書」效能的限度提醒我們,國家利益優先的狹隘觀點仍凌駕於全球視野之上。因此在技術評估之外,仍需要建立新的國際機制,將各個國家、區域組織、企業團體與公民社會的相互責任網織在一起,如此方有助於在法規、文化及消費模式上產生深層的轉變。
在這些有待建立的國際工具中,最迫切的首推「世界環境組織」,其設立應以「世界貿易組織」(World Trade Organization, WTO)的模式為基礎。WTO模式的成功之處在於:其管理架構是立基於各國間相互的依存關係,同時由強大的世界會議主體來約束各會員國,促使他們尊重會議上所簽署的條約義務。諷刺的是,國際社會願意竭盡所能發展如此卓越的世界組織,以促進並規範國際貿易,卻拒絕付出相等的努力來支持人類賴以生存的生活系統。但願二月二日的報告成為全球意識提升的潮流變遷指標,而現在也正是我們改變內心氣候的時刻!

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/de_editoclimate_ct.jpg{/rokbox}

週四, 22 二月 2007

豬年 積聚 永續

不管是哪一種動物,幼小的動物總是惹人疼愛。我們看到小老虎驚呼的憐愛聲,就像我們看到小兔子一樣驚喜。小豬博得的鍾愛聲,想必就像小龍一樣響亮(若有人見過小龍的話,應該會贊同我的話。)等到動物越長越大,就不見得個個可愛。老虎雄強生威,馬兒步伐優雅,兔子想到籠外跳躍。「豬」這種動物恐怕是胖得最多的了。小時候,我在法國對豬的印象就像許多國家的小孩一樣,很怕被冠以「豬」字,因為豬並不是用來稱贊人的,例如「吃相不要像豬一樣」、「個性像豬一樣懶惰」、「像豬一樣髒」、「胖得像豬」……感覺上「豬」的文化意涵不高,總是被拿來開玩笑。
然而,凡是視豬肉為美食的民族都懂得欣賞豬的美德,因為豬很實在,牠一點都不浪費,而且為我們回收廚房剩下的食物。雖然人類對豬百般貶抑,豬還是很慷慨地提供我們好吃的肉。豬不但是「節約」的同義詞,而且「豬」象徵著可以取得利益的資本。小時候我們不是都把錢存在小豬撲滿嗎?豬不被許多人喜愛,但是牠很有用,具有生產力;豬是貧窮人的救生隊,牠讓人類懂得珍惜、運用有限的資源。
豬年的來到讓我們正視人類未來發展需要的美德。為了確保未來的發展,台灣正在調適、尋找新的經濟與社會發展模式,然而台灣卻也遇到了空前的金融風暴,社會事件更是層出不窮。「豬」的特質也許可以給予我們許多靈感,讓我們構思台灣永續發展需要努力的方向:豬的生產力大於消費力,牠不是敗家子,剩下的食物牠都吃,牠告訴我們「積聚」的重要。台灣不敢再自稱「虎」,「龍」的經濟模式也不再適用。不過,我們改不了過去的消費習慣,適應不了平淡的生活,能源沒有做好回收與再利用,經濟成長開倒車……未來我們需要的發展模式,不但必須注意到資源的有限性,而且仍能顧及後代子孫的需要。三隻小豬蓋房子、尋求安全庇護的踏實作為看起來可比自傲放肆、摧毀一切的壞野狼來得有智慧。大野狼掠奪式的狂舉並不是永續發展的正面模式,三隻小豬懂得謙卑與團結,反而具有「永續」的意涵……
台灣應該貫注全力朝向永續發展而努力。未來六十年或是七十年,台灣應該立志當經濟翻飛的成功典範;未來八十年或是九十年,台灣應該立志當華人世界與東亞的民主典範;對於全球暖化的警訊、世界能源告枯竭的前景,台灣應當有所作為,立志當亞洲發展的永續典範。三隻小豬面對危險的時候團結在一起對抗大野狼,這個故事提醒我們「沒有團結,就沒有永續發展」。豬年讓我們省思積聚的美德,並藉這個機會展望往後重要的永續走向。

【聯合報民意論壇,2007年2月26日】

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/Matrix_AnneeduCochon.jpg{/rokbox}

週四, 22 二月 2007

China's Forests

- China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests. With only 18% of forested land, compared to the world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources. Virgin forests account for 1% of its total territory. Its wood stock per inhabitant is around one sixth of world average. The proportion of young and middle-aged forests is of 70 per cent of all secondary growth forests, and the growth stock per forest unit is low.

- In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations:
> 1958-1961: The Great Leap Forward
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.
> 1966-1971: The Cultural Revolution
Hectares of forested sloping lands were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.
> Early 80s: Beginning of the Economic Reforms
Allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, farmers fell down all the trees on their contracted land.
20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost during these three episodes.

- 0lder forests are still disappearing (740,000 hectares of forest have disappeared in 2004) and the quality of newly planted surfaces is far inferior to that of older forests. In China the wooded area per inhabitant is four times inferior to world average. Since the quality of Chinese forests is very weak, the ratio of wood quantity per inhabitant is even weaker: only one sixth of world average. National regulations are still often disregarded, and the rise of paper consumption makes things worse.

- Forests affected by illness accounted for less than one million hectares in 1950. They account for around 10 millions hectares nowadays.

- Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.

- Simple conifer forests comprise two thirds of China’s planted forests, with four great conifer accounting for 80 per cent of the total.

- In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers. At the same time, massive reforestation effort and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented. As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.

- As the world’s largest importer of wood and covering half of its domestic demand,
China is driven deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa. China is nowadays the first world importer of wood and imports from countries that manage very badly their own wood resources (Burma, Cambodia, Congo, Eastern Russia.) In other words, China is exporting its wood problem.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/forest.swf{/rokbox}

週日, 04 二月 2007

房屋修建過程的調查

調查地點:涼山州鹽源縣白烏鎮一村六組
調查對象:涼山州鹽源縣白烏鎮小學教師馬呷呷,女,二十八歲;白烏鎮一村六組日伙爾歪,男,四十三歲;黑惹莫巫呷,女,五十三歲。
調查者:鹽源縣民族中學學生馬發根,女。

以下為馬呷呷介紹:
關於我家房屋的修建是這樣的:到2002年3月,我家老房子已有二十多年,比較陳舊,到處是耗子洞,甚至有一處要垮下來了。面臨這種情況,必須修建一下房子,但我們家當家的是母親,母親年老而文盲,她不知所措,所以新房子的任務也就落在我這個長女的肩上,但我們彝族傳統的風俗習慣就是修建這類工作全是男人的事,女人是從不過問也一竅不通的。但我們家的情況比較特殊,父親去世得早,兒子還不懂事,不能當家,只有我自己亂想著修,在修這個房子之前,我想了好幾夜,我覺得老房子這種修法不好,比較分散,難於管理,較不安全,四面都通,還有一個缺點就是牲畜和房屋沒有分開,比較不衛生。整個村子的房屋都存在著這樣的問題。通過這幾個問題,我想這個房屋應當儘量避免這幾個問題才對。所以我就想,這個房子必須用四個長方形的房子圍成一個四合院,只留一扇大門,牲口的房屋則建設另一處,這樣就比較集中、安全且衛生,如圖1-1。在建設這個房子的第一天,我把這個想法告訴了木匠日伙爾歪。經過和他們的一番爭論,這個房子還是按照我的想法修成了。由於各種原因,房子的面積小,但這是我們村裡的第一家。正房只有一間,比其他幾間都寬敞。這是根據我們自己的需要和風俗來設計的,因為在彝族家,客人來訪時,人比較多,而且都坐在正房。正房兩邊各有兩小間,一共四間,兩間是主人的臥室,一間是客房,還有一間是放洋芋的。正房對面那間是準備做廚房的,廚房門口有一扇大門,大門一鎖,就什麼東西都不能進來了,大門外是豬圈和廁所,我的設計就是這樣的。

接下來為日伙爾歪的介紹:
修這個房子前要先算命,以算媽媽的命為主。彝族的kut(注1)分為東、西、南、北、東南、西北、東北、西南等八個架子。媽媽的kut在tap ggie ap mop(注2)的一面,門就不能開向這一面。你媽媽屬鼠,今年五十三歲,kut在bbu ddu(注3),所以門不能向bbu ddu開,這些都是希望以後住這個房子不要生病。把命算好後,才開始修房子。修這個房子,經過多次爭論之後都贊同馬呷呷老師的設計來修的。修建的第一天,先把地坪量好。房子的正房長二丈五尺,寬一丈九尺八吋;主人臥室長三丈二尺,寬一丈一尺;客房長三丈二尺,寬一丈一尺;廚房長二丈五尺、寬一丈二尺八吋,這樣就把整個房屋的面積固定好。接著把牆板架好,牆板是用長六尺,寬一尺四吋,高一尺的木板做成的。牆板樣式如圖1-2。先將一畚箕泥土放進牆板裡,然後在一個木盆裡放兩個酒杯和草煙,一邊把酒倒在牆板上,一邊說:「你住在這間房屋裡平安無事,你住這個房子裡直到白髮的時候,子孫住在這間房子裡都能受到庇祐,長命百歲。」把草煙分給九個人,「九」代表ggu ko(注4)。接著就開始填泥土,第一層填好後用牆垂舂,牆垂的樣式如圖1-3。把第一層舂好後再填一層泥土,舂好了還填一層泥土,一把牆要填三層土才算舂完。第二轉牆以後,必須用一根竹棍或者木塊放在牆板的架子下,此外,每過一把牆就裝一層牆基,六把牆轉圓過門。過門這天必須要選好日子,日子不好,表示牲口養不好,財運也不好,還有過門這天必須吃豆腐,豆腐還沒有煮之前,先將豆腐泡撒在牆上,一邊說:「把不好的各種疾病壓在地下,不要讓它出來。」因為豆腐是用豆子做成的,豆子從地下長出來,所以能夠把各種疾病壓住。接著裝過門板,過門板長七尺五吋,寬七吋,厚三吋,然後再裝樓橋,每間房子必須裝九根、五根或三根竿子,六根或七根是絕對不能裝的,因為我們彝族家人死時,會在死人下面放置六或七塊木塊。在樓橋上放一些木板好放東西。這家房子的正房有五根樓橋,其餘三間各三根。樓橋裝完之後,再過兩把牆,牆的中間和牆腳上裝挑。正房裝四根挑,其他各裝三根,裝好後再收尖,把尖收好後,在主人坐的那邊安一根圓柱。圓柱上放一根got jie(注5),got jie上放一根ie ddu ddu(注6),上面還再放一根got jie,最後就是兩根yi mu iie(注7)。Yi mu iie的上面是竿子,竿子上面再釘木板。正房有二十二根竿子,前後各十一根,木板共一百六十塊。接著再蓋瓦,瓦大概是六千塊,這樣就把房子蓋好了。然後再選個好日子才開門,把門開好後,就挖一個火塘。火塘上安三個鍋庄,三個鍋庄各有各的名字,但我不知道它們確切的稱呼。把鍋庄安好後,就燒火,燒火時還說:「鬼不要進屋,好的可以進屋,在這家房子裡不要出現吵鬧。」再把門裝在從外入內時的左邊,按照門的方位,就分成了客人和主人坐的位置。裝有門的一邊是主人坐的,在主人坐的一邊牆上裝兩根木棍,然後把一塊木塊放在上面。這是用來接菩薩的。任何其他的人都不能亂摸,主人家也不能隨便摸。我們彝家殺雞、豬、羊、牛時,首先必須把肝拿來燒,燒熟時放在木塊上,一會兒後拿下來,主人吃了客人才能吃。還有主人的位置,客人是不能坐的,最特殊的是,凡是主人家的哥哥都不能坐主人家的位置,假如坐了,就表示對主人的妻子不尊重。整個房屋就是這樣修好的。

下面再由黑惹莫巫呷介紹:
我家這個房子總共修了十一天,每天都使用三個牆板。人分成三組,每天修房的人數都不少於二十八人,這些人都是我的鄉鄰們,他們都是來幫忙的,我沒付給他們工錢,只是在我家吃。修這座房子用了五百元錢,都是用在買瓦上的,其他都是鄉鄰們幫著修的,不花錢。

綜括以上三個人的介紹,我覺得這座房子設計的優點是把牲口與人分開,這一點很好,因為我們彝族是個不怎麼講究衛生的家族,對生活很隨便,沒有一個生活程序。這個房子排除了鄉鄰們以前所存在的問題,也給鄉鄰們起了一個帶頭的作用。經他們的介紹,我們可以了解到,彝族的封建思想還沒有徹底消除,許多人都還相當迷信,這是現存的一個很大的問題。我們年輕的一代怎樣才能解決這個問題呢?

第一個介紹紀錄於2002年6月28日中午十二點
第二個介紹紀錄於2002年6月28日晚上
第三個介紹紀錄於2002年6月29日
整理於2002年6月30日

注:
1. kut:命宮
2. tap ggie ap mop:本命
3. bbu ddu:東
4. ggu ko:牢固
5. got jie:屋樑
6. le ddup:屋樑
7. yi mu jie: 前後橫樑

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/ma_maison_ct.jpg{/rokbox}

週日, 04 二月 2007

房屋修建过程的调查

调查地点:凉山州盐源县白乌镇一村六组
调查对象:凉山州盐源县白乌镇小学教师马呷呷,女,二十八岁;白乌镇一村六组日伙尔歪,男,四十三岁;黑惹莫巫呷,女,五十三岁。

以下为马呷呷介绍:
关于我家房屋的修建是这样的:到2002年3月,我家老房子已有二十多年,比较陈旧,到处是耗子洞,甚至有一处要垮下来了。面临这种情况,必须修建一下房子,但我们家当家的是母亲,母亲年老而文盲,她不知所措,所以新房子的任务也就落在我这个长女的肩上,但我们彝族传统的风俗习惯就是修建这类工作全是男人的事,女人是从不过问也一窍不通的。但我们家的情况比较特殊,父亲去世得早,儿子还不懂事,不能当家,只有我自己乱想著修,在修这个房子之前,我想了好几夜,我觉得老房子这种修法不好,比较分散,难于管理,较不安全,四面都通,还有一个缺点就是牲畜和房屋没有分开,比较不卫生。整个村子的房屋都存在著这样的问题。通过这几个问题,我想这个房屋应当尽量避免这几个问题才对。所以我就想,这个房子必须用四个长方形的房子围成一个四合院,只留一扇大门,牲口的房屋则建设另一处,这样就比较集中、安全且卫生,如图1-1。在建设这个房子的第一天,我把这个想法告诉了木匠日伙尔歪。经过和他们的一番争论,这个房子还是按照我的想法修成了。由于各种原因,房子的面积小,但这是我们村里的第一家。正房只有一间,比其他几间都宽敞。这是根据我们自己的需要和风俗来设计的,因为在彝族家,客人来访时,人比较多,而且都坐在正房。正房两边各有两小间,一共四间,两间是主人的卧室,一间是客房,还有一间是放洋芋的。正房对面那间是准备做厨房的,厨房门口有一扇大门,大门一锁,就什么东西都不能进来了,大门外是猪圈和厕所,我的设计就是这样的。

接下来为日伙尔歪的介绍:
修这个房子前要先算命,以算妈妈的命为主。彝族的kut(注1)分为东、西、南、北、东南、西北、东北、西南等八个架子。妈妈的kut在tap ggie ap mop(注2)的一面,门就不能开向这一面。你妈妈属鼠,今年五十三岁,kut在bbu ddu(注3),所以门不能向bbu ddu开,这些都是希望以后住这个房子不要生病。把命算好后,才开始修房子。修这个房子,经过多次争论之后都赞同马呷呷老师的设计来修的。修建的第一天,先把地坪量好。房子的正房长二丈五尺,宽一丈九尺八寸;主人卧室长三丈二尺,宽一丈一尺;客房长三丈二尺,宽一丈一尺;厨房长二丈五尺、宽一丈二尺八寸,这样就把整个房屋的面积固定好。接著把墙板架好,墙板是用长六尺,宽一尺四寸,高一尺的木板做成的。墙板样式如图1-2。先将一畚箕泥土放进墙板里,然后在一个木盆里放两个酒杯和草烟,一边把酒倒在墙板上,一边说:「你住在这间房屋里平安无事,你住这个房子里直到白发的时候,子孙住在这间房子里都能受到庇佑,长命百岁。」把草烟分给九个人,「九」代表ggu ko(注4)。接著就开始填泥土,第一层填好后用墙垂舂,墙垂的样式如图1-3。把第一层舂好后再填一层泥土,舂好了还填一层泥土,一把墙要填三层土才算舂完。第二转墙以后,必须用一根竹棍或者木块放在墙板的架子下,此外,每过一把墙就装一层墙基,六把墙转圆过门。过门这天必须要选好日子,日子不好,表示牲口养不好,财运也不好,还有过门这天必须吃豆腐,豆腐还没有煮之前,先将豆腐泡撒在墙上,一边说:「把不好的各种疾病压在地下,不要让它出来。」因为豆腐是用豆子做成的,豆子从地下长出来,所以能够把各种疾病压住。接著装过门板,过门板长七尺五寸,宽七寸,厚三寸,然后再装楼桥,每间房子必须装九根、五根或三根竿子,六根或七根是绝对不能装的,因为我们彝族家人死时,会在死人下面放置六或七块木块。在楼桥上放一些木板好放东西。这家房子的正房有五根楼桥,其馀三间各三根。楼桥装完之后,再过两把墙,墙的中间和墙脚上装挑。正房装四根挑,其他各装三根,装好后再收尖,把尖收好后,在主人坐的那边安一根圆柱。圆柱上放一根got jie(注5),got jie上放一根ie ddu ddu(注6),上面还再放一根got jie,最后就是两根yi mu iie(注7)。Yi mu iie的上面是竿子,竿子上面再钉木板。正房有二十二根竿子,前后各十一根,木板共一百六十块。接著再盖瓦,瓦大概是六千块,这样就把房子盖好了。然后再选个好日子才开门,把门开好后,就挖一个火塘。火塘上安三个锅庄,三个锅庄各有各的名字,但我不知道它们确切的称呼。把锅庄安好后,就烧火,烧火时还说:「鬼不要进屋,好的可以进屋,在这家房子里不要出现吵闹。」再把门装在从外入内时的左边,按照门的方位,就分成了客人和主人坐的位置。装有门的一边是主人坐的,在主人坐的一边墙上装两根木棍,然后把一块木块放在上面。这是用来接菩萨的。任何其他的人都不能乱摸,主人家也不能随便摸。我们彝家杀鸡、猪、羊、牛时,首先必须把肝拿来烧,烧熟时放在木块上,一会儿后拿下来,主人吃了客人才能吃。还有主人的位置,客人是不能坐的,最特殊的是,凡是主人家的哥哥都不能坐主人家的位置,假如坐了,就表示对主人的妻子不尊重。整个房屋就是这样修好的。

下面再由黑惹莫巫呷介绍:
我家这个房子总共修了十一天,每天都使用三个墙板。人分成三组,每天修房的人数都不少于二十八人,这些人都是我的乡邻们,他们都是来帮忙的,我没付给他们工钱,只是在我家吃。修这座房子用了五百元钱,都是用在买瓦上的,其他都是乡邻们帮著修的,不花钱。

综括以上三个人的介绍,我觉得这座房子设计的优点是把牲口与人分开,这一点很好,因为我们彝族是个不怎么讲究卫生的家族,对生活很随便,没有一个生活程序。这个房子排除了乡邻们以前所存在的问题,也给乡邻们起了一个带头的作用。经他们的介绍,我们可以了解到,彝族的封建思想还没有彻底消除,许多人都还相当迷信,这是现存的一个很大的问题。我们年轻的一代怎样才能解决这个问题呢?

第一个介绍纪录于2002年6月28日中午十二点
第二个介绍纪录于2002年6月28日晚上
第三个介绍纪录于2002年6月29日
整理于2002年6月30日

注:
1. kut:命宫
2. tap ggie ap mop:本命
3. bbu ddu:东
4. ggu ko:牢固
5. got jie:屋梁
6. le ddup:屋梁
7. yi mu jie: 前后横梁

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/ma_maison_cs.jpg{/rokbox}

週六, 03 二月 2007

Climate Change: The IPCC Experts Report

On February 2, 2007, a panel of experts working on the “Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” came out with the most precise conclusions ever drafted on the reality, causes and impact of climate change. eRenlai has read their report and offers to its readers the following summary.

HUMAN AND NATURAL DRIVERS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

- Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased markedly as a result of human activities since 1750 and now far exceed pre-industrial values.
- The global increases in carbon dioxide concentration are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land-use change, while those of methane and nitrous oxide are primarily due to agriculture.
- Present scientific understanding leads to very high confidence (more than 90 per cent probability) that the net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming.


A FEW PRACTICAL FINDINGS

- Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global sea level.
- Eleven of the last twelve years (1995 -2006) rank among the 12 warmest years in the record of global surface temperature (since 1850). The 100-year trend (1906–2005) is larger than the corresponding trend for 1901-2000. The warming trend over the last 50 years is nearly twice that for the last 100 years. The total temperature increase from 1850–1899 to 2001– 005 is 0.76 C.
- The average atmospheric water vapour content has increased since at least the 1980s over land and ocean as well as in the upper troposphere.
- Observations since 1961 show that the average temperature of the global ocean has increased to depths of at least 3000 m and that the ocean has been absorbing more than 80% of the heat added to the climate system.
- Mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined on average in both hemispheres. Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have contributed to sea level rise.
- New data show that losses from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have very likely contributed to sea level rise over 1993 to 2003.
- Global average sea level rose at an average rate of 1.8 mm per year over 1961 to 2003. The rate was faster over 1993 to 2003, about 3.1 mm per year. The total 20th century rise is estimated to be 0.17 m.
- At continental, regional, and ocean basin scales, numerous long-term changes in climate have been observed. These include changes in Arctic temperatures and ice, widespread changes in precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind patterns and aspects of extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves and the intensity of tropical cyclone.
- The warmth of the last half century is unusual in at least the previous 1300 years.
- The last time the polar regions were significantly warmer than present for an extended period (about 125,000 years ago), reductions in polar ice volume led to 4 to 6 metres of sea level rise.
- Average Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of the 20th century were very likely higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years and likely the highest in at least the past 1300 years.

UNDERSTANDING AND ATTRIBUTING CLIMATE CHANGE

- Most of the observed increase in averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas concentrations created by Man.
- Discernible human influences now extend to other aspects of climate, including ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns.
- The observed widespread warming of the atmosphere and ocean, together with ice mass loss, support the conclusion that it is extremely unlikely that global climate change of the past fifty years can be explained without external forcing, and very likely that it is not due to known natural causes alone.
- For the next two decades a warming of about 0.2 C per decade is projected. Even if the concentrations of all greenhouse gases and aerosols had been kept
constant at year 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.1°C per decade would be expected, due mainly to the slow response of the oceans.
- Continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates would cause further warming and induce many changes in the global climate system during the 21st century that would very likely be larger than those observed during the 20th century.
The Summary Report for Policy Makers (PDF)

Attached media :
{rokbox}media/articles/ed_climatic_en.jpg{/rokbox}

週五, 08 十二月 2006

中國的空氣污染

污染程度評估:

中國是全世界空氣污染最嚴重的國家之一:
- 硫磺排放量位居世界之冠
- 溫室氣體排放量位居世界第二
- 環境保護成效在133個國家中排名第94位。

在監測中的城市,有70%的污染程度介於中度到嚴重之間 這些城市並未達到世界衛生組織的空氣品質標準).

33%的城市居民呼吸有毒性的空氣量,相當於每天吸兩包菸.

- 酸雨損害農作物,
- 醫療支出,
- 由於疾病而導致活動力的限制,
造成中國每年國民生產總值8%-12%, 大約250億美元的損失.


空氣污染的肇因:

中國的極速發展是造成環保危機的主因.

中國工業部門及國內能源有70%使用燃煤,造成污染.

營造工業所產生的懸浮微粒子: 煤灰和粉塵.


有毒性的空氣結論:

曝露於受到空氣污染的環境之下,危害人體健康.

根據各類估計,空氣污染導致每年十萬至四十萬兒童早夭.

30%的城市受到酸雨的影響,嚴重地破壞了湖泊、河流、海洋生物、森林及農作物的生長.


預報:

如果空氣污染的情勢没有逆轉: 「中國將於2010年超越美國,成為全世界排放二氧化碳最多的國家。」國際能源署, 2006年11月7日.
下載桌面 (ct2)

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_tw.jpg|}media/articles/air_ct.swf{/rokbox}

週一, 27 十一月 2006

Air Pollution in China

- China’s air pollution is one of the worst in the world: The country is leader in sulfur emissions and ranks as the second largest producer of greenhouse gases

- 70% of Chinese monitored cities are moderately to severely polluted (i.e., they do not meet the World Health Organization Air Quality Standards).

- According to the World Bank (2004) Chinese cities make up 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted. (A 1998 World Health Organization report on air quality in 272 cities worldwide concluded that seven of the world’s 10 most polluted cities were in China.)

- 33% of urban dwellers breathe toxic air, equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day.

- According to various estimates, air pollution is responsible for 100,000 to 400,000 premature deaths a year. Restricted activity caused by illness, cost China 25 billion US$ a year, 8 to 12% of its annual GDP. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease occurs at a rate twice the average for other developing countries.

- The main factors causing air pollution are (a) China’s breakneck development ; (b) the fact that 70% of China’s industry and domestic energy is supplied by coal-burning; (c) construction industry that generates suspended particles, soot and dust.

- Polluted air also causes less rainfall in mountainous areas, with direct effects on big rivers, which receive much of their water supply from mountainous precipitations.

- Private car ownership in Chin rose from one million vehicles in 1994 to 16 million in 2004. The continuation of the trend would mean 170 million private cars on China’s roads by 2020, requiring 100 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) per year and producing 102 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2005, China had 32 million operative vehicles of four or more wheels, plus 57 million two- and three-wheelers . According to the Asian Development Bank, over the next 20 years, China’s vehicles will grow to 183 million, plus 194 million two- and three-wheelers. By 2010, China’s cars will consume 138 million tons of oil each year, and this will grow to roughly 430 million tons by 2030

- If present trends are not reversed, "China will overtake the United States as the world’s biggest emitter of CO2 before 2010." (The International Energy Agency, 2006, November)

- Reliance on coal poses a special problem. China is using 42 per cent of the world’s thermal coal for power and 48 per cent of its coking coal for steel. Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi, where much of the country’s coal is mined, has the world’s worst air pollution. Presently, China accounts for almost half of world production and consumption of coal. In 2002, the Chinese government vowed to cut sulfur emissions by 10 percent by 2005. Instead, they rose 27 percent. 2.2 billion tons of coal were extracted in 2005 , and the central government’s (conservative) estimate puts the output at 2.6 in 2010. Private analysts estimate that this figure will already be reached in 2007.

- The average American still consumes more energy and is responsible for the release of 10 times as much carbon dioxide as the average Chinese. While China now generates more electricity from coal than does the United States, America’s consumption of gasoline (which also releases carbon dioxide) dwarfs China’s.
Detailed analysis of the nature of the relationship between China’s industrial growth and atmospheric pollution in

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/air.swf{/rokbox}

週五, 03 十一月 2006

中國的水資源挑戰

水資源:
水資源管理是中國文明的一部分。

人口比例占全世界20%的中國,擁有的水源卻只占全球的7%,因此,「水」問題一直是中國面臨的嚴苛挑戰。

2004年水資源消耗量比例:
- 農業用水:64%
- 工業用水:22%
- 民生用水:12%
- 其他:2%

在中國的660個城市中,有一半以上飽受缺水之苦,影響一億六千萬人的生活。

中國每人平均用水量僅占世界平均值的25%。

水污染:
90%城市的地下水及75%的河川與湖泊已受到污染。

2004年污水排放來源比例:
- 民生:34%
- 工業:66%

由於普遍性的水污染,七億人民每天飲用被污染的水。

主要污染源:
- 動物及人之排泄物
- 砷化物
- 化學物質
- 氰化物
- 食品與飲料
- 汞

由水污染所導致的疾病,使得兒童早夭的人數節節上升,其原因為:
- 天生缺陷
- 癌症
- 霍亂
- 腹瀉
- 智能障礙
- 肝炎
- 腫瘤
- 傷寒症

在2005年11月至2006年1月之間,發生了三件主要的意外,導致數以百萬的人民無水可用,讓中國越來越正視水資源問題的挑戰。

預報:
中國政府計劃大舉投資於廢水處理設備,以遏止水污染問題。

然而,如果水污染的情勢沒有逆轉,專家預測,2020年前中國將會因為水資源緊張,而產生三千萬的環境難民。

--------------------

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_tw.jpg|}media/articles/Water_ct.swf{/rokbox}

週六, 30 九月 2006

Water in China: For reference

A short press selection of paper articles on China’s environment and water problem in 2006

Jan 6, 2006 asia times
China’s threatening environment
By Nathan Nankivell

(…) There is little disagreement that China’s environment is a mounting problem for Beijing. The country is one of the world’s leaders in sulfur emissions, but with only a fraction of the vehicles of most countries; China is home to 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities; water pollution affects as much as 70% of the country; air pollution is blamed for the premature death of some 400,000 Chinese annually; crop returns are steadily decreasing in quantity and quality because of polluted land and water; and solid-waste production is expected to more than double over the next decade, pushing China far ahead of the United States as the largest producer.

Environment faces ’fragile’ balance
By Li Fangchao (China Daily)

Excessive logging, degradation of natural pasture land, shrinking wetlands, overuse of pesticides and fertilizers in farmland and contaminated coastal areas are just some of the major problems the country faces, according to China Ecological Protection, the first overview report released by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA).
The release of the report coincides with World Environment Day today, and the national theme is to promote "Ecological Safety and an Environment-friendly Society."
"The Chinese Government places great importance on ecological protection and has adopted a series of strategic plans," the report said. "As a result, the ecological environment in some key areas has improved," the report said.
"But due to the meagre per capita resources and regional disparities, the deterioration trend of the country’s fragile ecological environment as a whole has remained unchecked," said the report.
Among the findings are:
The ecology of 60 per cent of the country’s territory is considered fragile. A national study in 2000 rated the ecological quality of one-third of the country’s territory as good and another third as bad.
About 90 per cent of natural pasture land, which accounts for more than 40 per cent of the country’s territory, is facing degradation and desertification to some extent. Desertified pastures have become the major source of sand and dust storms.

China solves insecurity in drinking water
(Xinhua)
Updated: 2006-06-05 10:23

China has completed more than 800,000 rural drinking water projects in recent years, solving difficulties and insecurity in this regard for 67 million rural residents, says a white paper entitled Environmental Protection in China (1996-2005) issued on Monday.

The Chinese government has launched campaigns to build towns and townships with a beautiful environment and ecologically advanced villages in recent years, pushing forward comprehensive control of the rural environment, according to the white paper released by the Information Office of the State Council of China.

China is concentrating on the demonstration of comprehensive control of pollution from livestock, poultry and fish breeding, and non-point pollution in Taihu, Dianchi and Chaohu lakes, as well as in the Yangtze, Zhujiang and Yellow river deltas, the white paper says.

Some provinces and municipalities have beefed up control of the village environment and improved village infrastructure, and made progress in treating rural sewage and waste and controlling agricultural non-point pollution, according to the white paper.
The government has, as well, started the investigation of soil pollution and demonstration of pollution control throughout the country, and set up a system of testing and controlling the security of agricultural products, the white paper says.

It also strengthened the environmental security control of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, popularized high-efficiency, low-toxicity and low-residue pesticides, and prohibited the use of high-toxic and high-residual pesticides in the production of vegetables, fruits, grain, tea and Chinese medicinal herbs, the white paper adds.

The government also prevented non-point pollution brought about by irrational use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, farm-use plastic sheeting and wastewater irrigation, so as to ensure the security of agricultural products, according to the white paper.

China, at the same time, encouraged the development of eco-agricultural projects that closely integrates breeding industry with crop farming, the white paper says.

Diversion of the Shiyang River for irrigation has turned Qingtu Lake, foreground, into a plain. The Badain Jaran desert, rear, is fast sweeping the area, near Minqin.
By JOSEPH KAHN
Published: June 8, 2006
The New York Times

Yet a desert pincer is squeezing this struggling oasis town, and China’s long campaign to cultivate its vast arid northwest is in retreat.
An ever-rising tide of sand has claimed grasslands, ponds, lakes and forests, swallowed whole villages and forced tens of thousands of people to flee as it surges south and threatens to leave this ancient Silk Road greenbelt uninhabitable.
Han Chinese women here cover their heads and faces like Muslims to protect against violent sandstorms. Farmers dig wells down hundreds of feet. If they find water, it is often brackish, even poisonous.
Chinese leaders have vowed to protect Minqin and surrounding towns in Gansu Province. The area divides two deserts, the Badain Jaran and the Tengger, and its precarious state threatens to accelerate the spread of barren wasteland to the heart of China.
The national 937 Project, set up to fight the encroaching desert, estimated in April that 1,500 square miles of land, roughly the size of Rhode Island, is buried each year. Nearly all of north central China, including Beijing, is at risk.
Expanding deserts and a severe drought are also making this a near-record year for dust storms carried east in the jet stream. Sand squalls have blanketed Beijing and other northern cities, leaving a stubborn yellow haze in the air and coating roads, buildings, cars and lungs.

Especially noteworthy is the excellent series of articles on the Yellow River, International Herald Tribune, November 20-22.
Report on the Yellow River, International Herald Tribune-Asia

Attached media :
{rokbox}media/articles/matrix_desert_en.jpg{/rokbox}
第 4 頁,共 5 頁

捐款

捐款e人籟,為您提供更多高品質的免費內容

金額: 

事件日曆

« 九月 2020 »
星期一 星期二 星期三 星期四 星期五 星期六 星期日
  1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30        

目前有 7659 個訪客 以及 沒有會員 在線上