Erenlai - New Ethical Challenges 全球化之下的倫理重建
New Ethical Challenges 全球化之下的倫理重建

New Ethical Challenges 全球化之下的倫理重建

Here are testimonies and analyses that explore business ethics, life technology ethics, and environmental ethics - all fields that determine the way we conceive our nature, monitor our social conducts and foresee our future.



週三, 22 十月 2008

China’s Environmental Crisis and Global Warming

(extract from the speech given by B.V. during the colloquium on Cultural resources against Global Warming. oct 4, 2008, Taipei)

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IV- The international position

- Efforts by China to become a player in global governance, including in the environmental field, should not be underestimated. The country has signed more than fifty international conventions and treaties related to environmental protection and natural resources. The review of implementation by China of the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer, has shown gradual compliance by China to the Protocol and its willingness to fulfill its contractual obligations (it had completed in 1999 the targets set for 2002), but also conflicts of interest adversely affecting its ability to act. China is also aware of the strategic role played by NGOs in environmental diplomacy.
- However, China implicitly refuses to engage positively in the management of environmental resources, contributing to the unbridled exploitation of tropical forests of Southeast Asia or hydro-electric resources in the Amazon Basin.
- China’s position in international forums is constant: national responsibilities in this area are "common but differentiated"; climate change and sustainable development must be thought as a whole; technology transfer play a key role in meet the climate challenge; the "Clean Development Mechanism" and other similar programs should be continued and encouraged.

V – International Margin of Action

China may moderate its demands but will hardly abandon its basic positions. However, a change in the level of quotas could be acceptable to China, with a passage to a non-binding commitment level higher and stronger. China would probably limit international agreements with a regime that would facilitate practical cooperation projects and would thus releasing funds for promoting research and development in the field of new energies and to introduce renewable energy. At present, external pressures as influential as they are, are still weaker than internal resistance.
However, Hu Angang, an renowned economics professor at Tsinghua University, advisor to the government on environmental and social issues, has publicly called for China to accept to be bound by an international pact to reduce emissions. He acknowledged that his point of view remains in the minority but emphasizes the seriousness of the problems encountered by China. It envisages a sharp increase in Chinese emissions until 2020, but feels that implementation of drastic reductions in the following decade is quite feasible, so that Chinese emissions may go down to their 1990 level by 2030, and be reduced again by half over the next twenty years. China, he insists, will be the first victim of climate change, and has a strong economic and diplomatic interest to transform itself into a "green power.”
China therefore has the potential to play a positive international role, if it dares to tackle the speculative and risky nature of its present model of development. It will thus contribute to a better management of "global public goods". Making the turn towards sustainable development is without doubt the best way to assert its global contribution. Yet the Chinese response seems hesitant, often contradictory. Because the debate on its own model of governance remains severely limited, China finds it difficult to play a more active role in reforming global governance.
For now, we can just bet that China will carry out its ecological reform at its own pace but that it still refuses to be bound by a priori international agreements. The Chinese reticence should not block the commitments of other partners: Global governance, when it comes to climate change, must be one of "variable geometry" rather than based on the principle of "everything or nothing." In other words, the WTO model, (based on the search for consensus without offering viable alternative if unanimity is not achieved), model strongly challenged in recent months with the failure of the Doha Round, is not directly exportable in the field of environmental diplomacy.
It remains possible that, faced with bold initiatives of other nations, starting with the ones that the European Union must take in any case, China decided to take on the role it says to be aspiring to. In other words, the best way to engage China in world climate governance is perhaps to start without waiting that China finally decides to join global initiatives...

週二, 07 十月 2008



研討會主講人、來自法國的阿拉伯世界學院院長Dominique Baudis一開始便告訴所有與會來賓:「我們的消費模式、生產模式與價值體系息息相關,最終決定我們的發展模式是否能挽救人類活動對氣候的影響。」他同時告訴我們阿拉伯文化對環境方面的見解:「伊斯蘭教張顯在刻苦、乾旱及不容許浪費土地上,它載有許多禁止浪費、對待動物與水管理的規定。」最後並提出以參考歐洲「地中海聯盟」的「台灣海峽兩岸生態計劃」建言,為整場會議勾勒出明確且明智的方向。





這一場以台灣文化為主軸來對抗全球暖化國際研討會在主辦單位的心中已然成功,就在九位接過第二屆「生命永續獎」獎勵的得主露出充滿信心的笑容、道出心中深刻感受並接受在場三百位與會來賓熱烈鼓掌的同時,我們已經知道,公民社會精神已經在台灣受到肯定,由下而上的創意文化及思維就要傳遞到更多人的心中,這信念,就如同當天在會場中被複述最多的一句話─”To Believe what you believe!”



週四, 02 十月 2008
















在一部2006年由Marc Francis, Nick Francis所拍攝探討咖啡公平貿易的電影「Black Gold」中,導演透過畫面,記錄傳達了衣索比亞(Ethiopia)咖啡生產及銷售的現況,拍攝紀錄地區旁邊的村莊,大多是品牌咖啡的契作收購區,這兒生產的咖啡豆,被以西方咖啡集中交易市場所訂定的價格收購,沒有市場銷售管道以及運輸工具的農民是無法自行決定銷售的價格。







【地球樹Earth Tree】
台北市永康公園旁的「地球樹Earth Tree」,是一家推廣「公平貿易」的小店。在這兒,每件商品除了熟悉的價格標示之外,還吊掛著幾個特殊的標示牌,上頭印著「Fair Trade」;或是一張用手寫的小紙卡,上頭寫的滿滿的是這件商品的生產團體或個人背景,商品原料的生產方式及種植環境,或是這個生產合作社成立的背景及故事。在輕柔悠揚的背景音樂聲中,來這兒消費的顧客透過這一張張小小紙卡的用心,與在地球彼端的生產者建立了一種新的透明消費情感,以及兼顧地球環境永續的公平交易微妙關係。

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週五, 29 八月 2008

Climate change and cultural change








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週一, 25 八月 2008

A visit to Losheng sanitarium in Taiwan

Today I visited Taiwan’s famous Losheng Sanitarium (樂生療養院), a leper colony built by the Japanese colonial government in Xinzhuang City, Taipei County. As in leper colonies throughout the world, Taiwanese victims of Hansen’s Disease were forcibly imprisoned in Losheng by the government, as they were in Japan by the government there. Although the leper imprisonment order was lifted in Taiwan in the 1950s , they have for the most part remained. With modern medicine the patients are no longer inmates, and no longer contagious, but nothing can de-cripple them or regrow their missing fingers and stumpy limbs. And they have nowhere to go, and no way to survive except by public welfare of some sort.

I had first heard of Losheng perhaps a couple of years ago, due to the wave of protests to the government’s plan to demolish the entire complex to make way for a train depot, as part of Taipei metro’s never-ending expansion plan. Although there are naturally no opponents to MRT expansion itself, there have been severe doubts regarding the sense of building the depot in this particular location, which apparently requires the leveling of mountain to create flat ground which naturally occurs elsewhere and is widely suspected of having been chosen to satisfy local political interests before practical considerations of engineering.

Primary opposition to the plan however, is due to a desire to preserve Losheng. The adage goes something like, you never really appreciate something to it’s gone, and it is born out time and again in the history of urban preservation. New York City’s historical preservation regime was established in the wake of the foolhardy and abhorrent demolition of Penn Station in the 1960s, and throughout the world preservationist activity is often triggered by the threat of imminent loss. The government’s plan to demolish the place made people realize for the first time that it was worth preserving, and recent protests have spurred a surge of interest in the hospital site and its residents that has gone beyond simple preservationism to community organizing attempting to integrate Losheng, which for most of its existence was in principle as isolated as a prison, into the surrounding community. This has led to large numbers of non afiliated visitors spending time with the patients for probably the first time in many years, if not ever.

roy_berman_losheng_3It turns out that from the articles I had read in The Taipei Times, not to mention the briefer pieces I saw in Japanese media I had no idea what it was like. When I read about a hospital/leper sanitarium being destroyed to make way for MRT construction I had for some reason imagined a cluster of shabby old buildings on a city street corner. But of course a leper colony could not be in such a place, and is in fact built on slightly elevated and up-sloping terrain on mountain foothills of a part of Taipei county that, at the time, was mostly farmland. Less a modern style hospital or a prison, Losheng is actually a sprawling and rather pleasant, almost collegiate-looking, campus with abundant greenery and attractive brick buildings. The main hospital building looks properly medical, and the general sense of design reflects its Japanese period origins, with semi-exposed corridors reminiscent of the older buildings on the Japanese Imperial Universities of the early 20th century, such as today’s National Taiwan University or Kyoto National University (the two examples whose architecture I am familiar with). Most other buildings are also in the pre-war Japanese style common in Taiwan, with a few notable exceptions. The least Japanese buildings in Losheng are probably the Buddhist temple, which is in standard Taiwanese style, and the now shuttered Catholic Church, which is perhaps the most spartan Catholic church building I have ever seen, with only a spare cross on the roof and no writing of any kind on the outside, but with a green Chinese roof, oddly complete with dragon tiles on the corners, and outer walls painted in the Chinese temple fashion. It reminds me of nothing so much as the far more elaborate Tainan Catholic cathedral, which is constructed and painted completely in the manner of a Chinese temple, if you do not look too close at the paintings. Of particular interest are the residence buildings for patients (originally, remember, inmates) from particular parts of Taiwan, such as Penghu or Tainan, donated by the governments of that region.

I mentioned above activity integrating the Losheng campus into the greater community. This consists of various activities, such as holding lectures and community meetings inside Losheng, or educational programs for children. As chance had it, I happened to go on a day which was particularly active. Community activists are currently running a summer camp for children from various elementary schools in the area, using various Losheng buildings for different activities. I was taken to see the room being used for a week-long Japanese language class run by a Japanese woman studying a PhD in Urban Planning at National Taiwan University, in the room of the hospital building where the sickest patients were brought, connected by a locked iron door to the much smaller room where they were taken to die. This is either morbidly incongruous beyond belief, or an excellent symbol of the way in which the space is being reclaimed and repurposed from its grim past. But little of that darkness remains. The staff (mostly Taiwanese college students) had cleaned the room fastidiously, and it was festooned with child drawings illustrating various basic Japanese words and phrases.

Then I went to a much larger room, a sort of meeting hall I suppose, where the kids were being led in Japanese songs by some of the old patients who remember their Japanese well. One played the keyboard-no easy task with hands ravaged by Hansen’s Disease, while another sat in front of the stage in his motor chair, leading the children in Furosato.

After the class was over, I spent some time speaking to the old men, who seemed both movingly thrilled and slightly amazed to have so many young people, children, teenagers and 20-somethings, having fun inside Losheng and spending time with the patients as human beings, and not afraid of their no longer contagious disease. As is the case with many elderly Taiwanese, their first language is Taiwanese (aka Minnan, Hoklo, Fukkianese, etc.) Their Mandarin is generally weak and heavily accented, and most of them also speak Japanese to some degree, having undergone elementary education during the colonial period. I spent the most time speaking with one old man, Chang Wen-pin 张文贫, whose fluent Japanese was easily the best out of the group.

Mr. Chang, now 81 if my calculations are correct, went to a Japanese colonial elementary school in Taiwan and worked as, I think, a locksmith both under the Japanese and in the early years of the KMT, before he was interned. He was around 20 years old at the time of the 228 incident, and considers Chiang Kai-shek to be the worst thing to have happened to Taiwan.

To paraphrase, translated and from memory:

Taiwan’s history is full of tragedy. After WW2 Taiwan shouldn’t have been given to Chiang Kai-shek, but instead the allies should have occupied it. America, England and Russia should have managed Taiwan and then organized it for independence. If they had done that then we would have avoided the 228 massacre and noone in Taiwan would be speaking Mandarin (lit: guoyu) today!

Mr. Chang and the others made me promise to come back and visit next time I come to Taiwan, and before I left he made me wait while he went back to his room and brought a copy of the photo and essay book about Losheng assembled by the preservationist activists, which he signed and gave to me.

roy_berman_losheng_2Countless speakers have said that “A society is ultimately judged by how it treats its weakest and most vulnerable members.” The leper has always been a symbol for the lowest in society, and despite having no use for religion myself, I think I can understand why Mr. Chang finds his solace in Christianity, a religion in which the leper is a symbol not of disgust, but of redemption. It says a lot of a society in which lepers are no longer lepers, but patients, and the resurrection of Losheng from a medical prison into a park where children play may be taken as a symbol for Taiwan’s transformation from colony and then military dictatorship into the relatively free and effectively independent country that it is today. But the current metro expansion plan still requires the demolition of something like 30-40% of Losheng’s territory, with some buildings kept in place, a few relocated, and many destroyed entirely. Even the preservationists have abandoned their attempts to save the entire site, with construction of the nearby depot building already well under way, and their best case plan today is the “90% plan.” There is still room for improvement.

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週三, 02 七月 2008

Food Safety and Consumer's Education

I left the road and went into the wood. The path was large and smooth. I had been told that it would lead me to a circular wall of stones, the remains of a common house or a sacred ground built by one the people who had anonymously ventured into the island. Not much was left of the little colony that had settled there around four thousand years ago. A few weapons and fragments of pottery had been excavated, and were now exhibited elsewhere, in a little-known museum. Most of the findings had probably been kept by the locals. In the wood, there was no signpost - you just had to follow the path till you bumped into this circular wall made of heavy and reddish stones. Turning on the left, I found the opening, a very large stone adorning its top. Once inside, it seemed to be a shell carved in the heart of the forest: you could bend your back and venture into little rooms arranged all around the inner circle drawn by the rough wall. The upper ranges of stones had disappeared, but the design was reminiscent of a hut or, somehow, a big igloo. One could easily imagine a kind of rounded roof, a space left on the top for letting the smoke fly towards the sky, together with the songs, the laughs or the curses that were exchanged around the fire.

I sat outside the circle, against the wall. From there, one could not distinguish the valley, so heavy was the cover of the trees on the slopes. But the space around the remains was half cleared, and I could see the evening sky. It was still intensely blue, though, from place to place, it now seemed to mirror the shades of the stones and the trunks. The moon was already there, discreet and ill at ease like a guest who has made a mistake and arrives too early for dinner – in this second half of the month of June, the light would just not go away, and was bathing earth and sky as long as it could. It took hours before the night was night at last, ruled by the small moon crescent and by strong, vibrant stars, all of them glazing at the wall and surely also at myself, as I was now lying on my back, defiantly watching at whomever was watching me.

And then… after this long vigil, music was suddenly flowing, a rarefied music, music that gives itself from the shell of silence; from the shell of the ear, from the shell of the inner rooms this wall was encircling, from the birds and the beasts of the night, from the blind wind hesitantly touching trees, grass and stones, from the earth and its bones, from my breath and the stars, from what was dark and what was not. Maybe this ground had been chosen and erected for giving pulse and vibration to the music that flows by night, to music that searches who will capture it in its nest and will then offer it in return to what or whom music comes from. The ground had been the harp through which sounds and rhythms were finding their shape and their master, and were, night after night, spelling the sentence to utter and repeat in new and endless variations. The harp now was resonating faintly, but to the one who would apply his ear against the stones and the earth that assembled them the sentence was still audible, as clear as the stars in the cloudless night. And I finally closed my eyes, not looking anymore at who was watching over me, but listening to the silence running under my voice and to the voice hidden in the silence I was reaching.

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週四, 01 五 2008

Good Old Charlie Brown

In the Peanuts comic strip of Charles Schulz there was one recurring scene in which Lucy persuades Charlie Brown to kick the football which she is positioning for him on the ground. Then inevitably at the last moment she pulls the ball away and Charlie Brown’s foot failing to make contact with the ball flies into the air and throws him off balance so he lands with a loud grunt flat on his back. No matter how many times he is fooled, he falls for the trick every time.

Is Charlie Brown so gullible, he never learns? Or does he realize it is still probably a trick, but goes along with it anyway? What if this will be the one time she doesn’t take the ball away? He will have lost his only chance to kick the ball.

To the Charlie Browns of this life there is nothing or no one who is so bad that there is no hope for change. Such an attitude quite obviously has no effect on Lucy, but who knows how many times in the course of his life, Charlie’s Brown willingness to forgive and allow others to redeem themselves will be the turning point that stops someone from continuing down a path that would lead to ruin.

We tend to laugh at the apparent weakness of someone who innocently turns the other cheek to his or her tormentor, but only God knows how many times that courageous gesture saved the other cheek from suffering the fate of the first.

What the world needs are fewer Lucys and far more Charlie Browns.

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週三, 30 四月 2008



方岚萱 撰文



週三, 30 四月 2008



方嵐萱 撰文



週二, 18 三月 2008

A matter of opportunity and honesty

Every day around the globe, newspapers are full of reports about sudden changes of fortune, catastrophic events, fortuitous coincidences, chance encounters that in the space of a few moments change the course of people’s lives forever. For some it is a blessing that sets them in the direction of success and reputation beyond their wildest expectations. For others it starts them down the road to sadness and misery. It is not the nature of the event that determines the outcome, but the resilience and determination and resourcefulness of the ones affected.

It doesn’t matter what people have been or what they did in the past, but what they are doing now. Where are they heading? Are they still competing? Have they remained true to their principles?

It would be nice to always have good weather, pleasant companions, circumstances that enhance and ratify what one is doing, but often we find ourselves in difficult conditions and it is necessary to create our own opportunities and to swim against the current. If we do, then our lives have purpose and our efforts are worthwhile, even if they fall short of their goal.

Here is a fable I wrote that shows how a little ingenuity turned a piece of art into a treasure.

The Counterfeit Antique

What makes an antique valuable? Perhaps it is the only surviving specimen of some ancient object or a relic of some historical significance or it belonged to someone famous or is made of precious materials. In the long run it is not what it was or what it is that determines its value but the fact that someone is willing to buy it at some outrageous price so they can boast of owning it or believe they have an investment that will go up in value so they can resell it for profit. The restoration of damaged or tarnished antiques is also a lucrative business. So is the illegal smuggling of ancient artifacts and forgery of fake antiques.

Once upon a time there was an honest artisan named Philip. He was making a good living from antiques, not by selling them or restoring them, but by making replicas of them. His reproductions were so authentic in every detail including the effects of aging that sometimes even the experts were fooled. One day he made an article that was almost perfect. It would surely fetch at least half a million dollars on the open market if it were real. But Philip was neither greedy nor dishonest. He knew that as an acknowledged product of modern technology, it was worth much less than that.

This didn’t bother Philip. But it did bother his wife. She was determined to find a way to get that half a million dollars. “There must be some way we can honestly get all that money for ourselves,” she thought. Then she had a brilliant idea. It wasn’t exactly dishonest. It just postponed the moment of honesty.

Since Philip left all business matters in the hands of his wife, he was unaware of her scheme, which he would surely have opposed, because if it didn’t succeed he would go to jail and his reputation would be ruined. His wife put the plan into action. She secretly arranged for the article to be discovered covered with dust in the attic of an old mansion that had once belonged to an eccentric millionaire who had sometimes bought rare antiques. It was hailed as one of the finds of the century. Experts were called in who had no doubts about its authenticity.

The one part of the plan the wife had had qualms about was the deception of the experts. She felt especially sorry for the one with the biggest reputation who was a close friend, so she let him in on the plan. Phillip’s artifact was put on the block for public auction by a prestigious auction firm. When the dust finally settled it was sold for $800,000.

When the gavel came down after the last bid, the art expert got up and made a shocking announcement. “I am very sorry to say that there has been a mistake. This sale was engineered to alert the public to be more cautious when buying antiques. This magnificent article here, which even had some experts fooled temporarily, is not really 2000 years old. It was made last year by Philip. See, right here hidden away in a secret place is Philip’s mark.”

The revelation caused a sensation. The expert who made the announcement was praised for his perception and honesty. Philip’s reputation as a craftsman was so enhanced that everything he had made immediately jumped in value and his future creations commanded much higher prices.

As for the antique replica in question, not only did it have the quality of craftsmanship to commend it, it was now famous as the piece that fooled the experts, so when it was subsequently auctioned not as an antique but as an authentic Philip’s, it still sold for over half a million dollars.

Philip’s wife was ecstatic. Philip had no time to rejoice. He was too busy working on the new commissions for his work that were pouring in.

There are lessons hidden here.

Unfortunately the pay for “it pays to be honest” is not always cash. Sometimes you just have to be content with the reward of a good conscience.

“Honesty is the best policy”, but like all policies, it has to be paid for. “The truth will make you free”, but not necessarily rich.

Sometimes the only way to tell the truth so people will listen is to embellish it.

“To tell nothing but the truth” is not enough if it isn’t the whole truth.

Something good turned into something better, because someone added something extra.

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週四, 13 三月 2008

When I was a kid, records were my teddy bears

Have you ever bought music on the Internet? I purchased my first couple of MP3s on the Web last week and it was the most depressing shopping experiment I have ever had. No illustrations or liner notes. Not even a receipt that I could have kept as a souvenir in case my computer would be destroyed by a killer virus. Just a file on my desktop, which name consisted of a series of random letters and numbers. That is not what the whole music industry had promised me. Music purchased on the Internet was supposed to be the future of music: a future where my shelves would not be clogged up with plastic CD boxes anymore, where my favorite song would not systematically be corrupted by scratches, and where I would only listen to the music I like, instead of having to buy those full-length albums in which half the tracks are rubbish. But for me, this future looks like more of a regression.

For Walter Benjamin, the mechanical reproduction of works of art (films, records or photographs) had led to the erasure of their sacred value. Now, the digitalization of such devices leads to a further loss: that of our affective attachment to all these daily objects, vinyl records, CDs and cassettes that used to clog up our shelves. The thrilling sensation of unfolding a new disc and putting it gently on the record player has been replaced by a cold and impersonal click on your mouse. The whole ritual that constituted our listening experience is vanishing as our old musical objects are being replaced by immaterial files. In these dark digital ages, maybe the time has come to sing a happy requiem to our old and beloved records – before we import them all in our iTunes libraries.

Among my memories of childhood, some of the most vivid lie in these countless hours spent in my elder brother’s room, browsing through his huge rock and punk records collection. I was only five or six years old by that time, and I would probably have received a good pair of smacks if I had dared to put any of those black acetate discs on the record player. But however, I was still allowed to watch the covers, and that is how I discovered most of what were to become my favorite bands and artists: by looking at pictures printed on 12-inch cardboard squares. For the middle-class child that I was living in a cozy suburb where the only annoyances where the dogs and pigeons’ droppings that made the streets look like Jackson Pollock paintings, such images were like these exotic names you discover when reading an atlas: sources of dream, curiosity and excitement. At a time when reading a book gave me the most terrible headaches, record covers were like a window wide open to the world, from where I could glance at white rockers and black jazzmen, leather jackets and three-piece suits, sexy girls and freckle-faced kids. They were also a way for me to develop a rather personal culture: before the age of ten I was already able to namedrop a few hundred names of bands whose music I still had not listened to.

I can still remember vividly some particular items of such sulfurous iconography. There were the covers that paralyzed me with fright, like these Motörhead LPs full of skulls and fat bikers. There were also the mysterious ones: this big yellow banana on a Velvet Underground record drawn by a guy called Andy Warhol; or that immaculate disc by P.I.L. with just a dark triangle of hair in the middle. But my favorite covers were definitely these of David Bowie’s records: each of them seemed to portrait a different person. The young guy that still looked like any other folk singer on Space Oddity suddenly became an androgynous character on the front illustration of Aladdin Sane, before turning into a strange creature, half-man half-beast on the Diamond Dogs cover. As a channel for Bowie’s perpetual self-reinvention, these covers conveyed an almost mythological meaning that in many respects exceeded the music itself. Looking at such a rich and extravagant iconography, I think now that my teenage fascination for rock stars was created as much by images as by the music itself.

So whatever the future of music looks like, I will still cherish my good old vinyl records. LPs are not just about music and sound – they also have a smell and a specific touch quality. I guess they also have a taste, although I never tried to eat any of those old plates. But most importantly, they are primarily ritual objects. Here is my problem with computer-purchased music: I’d like to take care of my MP3s, to clean the fingerprints on their surface and to store them in nice comfortable boxes. I also would like to be able to break them, to make scratches on them, to dirty their covers with my graffiti. MP3s make me anxious: they make me fear of a world where objects would have disappeared, where books and records and all sorts of devices would become simple digital artifacts displayed on a screen. I want to have my bookshelves clogged up with things, even the most useless ones. Because objects do not only fill empty spaces on your bookshelves: they are living parts of your memories, they belong to your heart and flesh, they make you feel less lonely when you are alone. When I was a kid, records were my teddy bears.

週三, 05 三月 2008


魏明德 撰文


對於基因改造作物是否予以商業化銷售,布希政府官員和歐洲國家代表雙方針鋒相對,其中不乏「道德說」的爭論。美國貿易代表佐立克(Robert Zoellick)強烈指責歐洲的立場「不道德」,因為歐洲以糧食含改造基因生物為由,慫恿某些非洲國家拒絕接受美國的糧食援助。美國當局使用「違反人性的罪」一詞,抨擊歐洲對基因改造作物的商業化銷售始終抱持疑慮的態度。我們是否應該就此相信,美國的論點只是為了人道救援而已呢?在糧食救援非洲的論戰背後,美國和歐洲其實有著重大的利益對決。





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