Erenlai - 按日期過濾項目: 週五, 28 三月 2008
週六, 29 三月 2008 01:48

拉美與亞洲的音樂對話

那天從地下室的書店走上來,春天的午後陽光直射泛白的把我吞蝕了。有一陣無名的昏眩,好像被喚起了什麼,一些片段充斥著腦海,那情境比溫德斯的公路電影再濫情一百倍,我仍欣然接受了──
我與妳坐在擁有閃亮不鏽鋼鐵皮的公車頂上,公車沿著國道狂奔,四周景象也一起暴走;我們的距離有點遠但彼此的手緊握,我們都不知道接下來是如何⋯我們看見的遠方逐漸遠去,直至模糊不清,交身而過的人們用很奇怪的眼神看著我,好像食人的陽光也是理所當然般。即使我已返回,那時經過的道路仍是如此蒼白而美好。

冬遊

我習慣迷路。
每條路通向目的地。
我們的喜悅,我們的悲傷,
不過是鬼火的玩具。


── (詩)繆勒Wilhelm MŸyller,
(音樂)舒伯特Franz Schubert

附加的多媒體:
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Jose Duarte participated in the first music CD released by Renlai in April 2008 (distributed with the issue #48).

Can you tell us about your Asian musical approach?

I was born in San Jose, Costa Rica in 1979. Since childhood, the surrounding sounds have always caught my attention. Loud noises like the ones produced by airplanes were scaring me, and I was hiding in a closet till it was silent again. I really enjoy music of all kinds and this helped me out to open up my mind and discover new ways of expressing myself through sound. I stayed in Taiwan for three years, and I went also to the Philippines, Japan and Korea.

Being in Asia opened my ears to new sounds. One of the strongest influences on me was the religious music I heard in Taiwan, especially from the Buddhist tradition. I was very impressed about by the way Buddhists make use of long chants to meditate. When I came to Taiwan I wanted to form an instrumental rock band just like the one I had in Costa Rica. But I started to get involved in other kinds of bands that gave me the chance to explore other styles. And, while in Hsinchu, I have met Luo Chao-Yun (駱昭勻) who interprets the Pipa in the piece called The Wind of Hsinchu included in this CD. Also I had collaborations with Janelle Chang (張宜蓁) who plays the Satar (A Uygur instrument from Xinjiang province) in Constant Change also part of the tracks of this CD.

I also participated in the improvisation band of the Music Institute where I was studying. There we played guitar along with Western instruments and Chinese instruments like the Gucheng and Sheng. I want to thank Prof. Hsing-Chwen Hsin (辛幸純) and Prof. Chao-Ming Tung (董昭民) who encouraged me in participate in this project.  At the end of my stay in Taiwan, I finally formed an instrumental rock band called Paparazzi Band.

When you composed the music for this CD, what was your main inspiration?

My musical section of the CD comprises a set of three guitar pieces composed before arriving in Taiwan. All of them composed for Nylon String Guitar, which is our favorite instrument in most of Latin America. The first two are made of five tone scales. These scales for us are immediately associated with Chinese music. The third piece, is a composition made for strumming the guitar, which associates with many different styles from Spain and Latin America. The other pieces were composed during my last year in Taiwan. All of them mix different Western and Eastern instruments.

What about the Proyecto Sonorum?

Proyecto Sonorum is an international music network meant to work as a bridge between Latin-America and Asia. This is how I contacted with composer Fabian Torres (Colombia) who I have never met in person.

(Photo courtesy of Pablo Murillo)



 

CD Track List

Fabian Torres

1. Eternal warrior dance with the animals (2008) 6:12
The chant of the monk sounds like the scream of Mother Earth, accompanied with kalimbas and traditional afro-Colombian rhythms.

2. Paradox (2007) 11:13
A gamelan cumbia. Flute, Kalimba and live Djembe.

3. San Agustin: The stone paradox (2007) 6:00
A Taoist contemplation of the San Agustin archaeological park in Colombia.

Jose Duarte

4. Pieza 1 1:14
5. Pieza 2 1:24
6. Pieza 3 2:29
Three pieces for Guitar Solo (2004): (Daniel Vega, Nylon String and Electric Guitar) (Otto Castro, Solo arrangement on Pieza 3)

7. The Wind of Hsinchu (2007) 6:26
(Luo Chao-Yun, Pipa; Jose Duarte, strings in CSOUND)

8.Improvisation (2007) 2:35
(Paparazzi Band)

9.Constant Change (2007) 5:47
(Paparazzi Band, and Janelle Chang, Satar (Uyghur instrument))

 

 

 

週五, 28 三月 2008 20:13

The Anatomy of Communication

In every instance of communication there are three indispensable elements: the sender, the message that the sender sends and the recipient, the one for whom the message is intended. Unless the sender is face to face with the recipient and they speak the same language, the message needs a messenger, courier or medium to deliver the message and a route for the message to traverse. That makes five elements, namely, the sender, the message, the messenger, the route and the recipient, each of which is subject to many variables.

The sender. The sender of the message does so for some purpose such as to greet, inform, respond, request, blame, threaten, please, anger or refuse. The sender probably has some specific intended reaction and/or response that he/she wishes the message to produce in the recipient and composes the message accordingly.

The message. The sender might personally compose and write the message or dictate it for someone else to record or might just tell some trusted associate the gist of what the message should say, so that the actual composition is done by another, but approved and signed or sealed by the sender. If the recipient speaks a different language, the message must be translated either before it is sent or later after it is received. If the message is to accomplish its purpose, it must accurately convey the sender’s intentions expressed clearly and unambiguously, unless it is intentionally designed to confuse and deceive.

The messenger. Once the message is ready for sending it requires someone to deliver it or some other medium for its transmission. Nowadays some important messages are still delivered in person by couriers or other designated official representatives, but usually there are governmental postal services, special private companies like DHL or UPI or FedEx, to say nothing of telephone, FAX and e-mail. However the message goes, it needs to be received in good condition, unopened and not tampered with. In some cases the message and the messenger must travel accompanied by gifts to render the recipient amenable and/or to pay whatever taxes, tolls or bribes might be necessary to enable the message to go on its way.

The route. There are many paths available, cables, wireless, satellites, airline routes, roadways, railways and sea routes, which are generally safe and reliable, but still subject to delays and detours to say nothing of accidents, piracy, theft or other interventions that can result in destruction or loss of the message. In olden times when so many ships were lost at sea and many routes were overrun with brigands and pirates or hostile natives or belligerent enemies, it was not uncommon for messages and messengers to fail to reach their destinations. Such failures still occur today, but fortunately on a greatly reduced scale.

The recipient. When the message arrives at its destination it must be accepted and delivered to the designated recipient. For the communication to be complete, the recipient must receive the message and fully understand what it was intended to say. He or she may first need to have the message translated, which if done inaccurately might lead to erroneous conclusions. Whether or not the message produces its intended reaction and response it is out of the control of the sender, but only in the hands of the recipient and his/her advisors.

From the point of view of the sender, the communication is a success, if its content is received by the recipient and its intended reaction and response are achieved or at least there is no response or repercussion that is undesirable or harmful. From the point of view of the messenger, success is when the message finally changes hands at the destination, especially if it is done expeditiously without pain, duress or injury. From the point of view of the recipient, the communication is a success if it clarifies an issue or produces a response or result that the recipient regards as appropriate.

With so many variables, it is amazing that so many communications successfully arrive and understandable why so many do not. One might feel anxious or threatened or lazy or hesitant to begin the communication process, given all the factors to be considered and all the things that might go wrong, but like a journey, whether it is short or very long, it still begins with a single step and continues a step at a time. The runner doesn’t halt after each step, but proceeds on his/her way until it is time for a rest or the endpoint is reached. Before the trip begins, the wise runner will have made whatever arrangements are necessary in order to reach the destination. And so should it be for the communicator. If you have something you want to say, just say it the best that you can, send it on its way as safely and quickly as you can and then sit back to await the response.

Attached media :
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週五, 28 三月 2008 19:25

如何成功执政?

2008台湾总统大选由马英九胜选。
大选过后,中央、地方、立院几乎都掌握在国民党手中。
国民党切莫遗忘人民自由,如言论自由、媒体自由、新闻自由…

魏明德 撰文

马英九的胜利并不出人意外。然而,新总统拿到胜利之后将做些什么,才是真正的问题所在。不管台湾居民投谁一票,都希望往后好运站在执政者这边,因为这块土地上的人需要愿景、动能、团结。接下来的四年如果失败,不将只是一个团队、一个党的挫败,而是整个台湾的失败。成功执政有其要求与条件,最好是能够条列出来,再说新总统将政见付诸行动分秒必争。舆论的评断取决于执政者的第一次行动,而成功执政的起始需要四个条件。
成功执政的第一个条件在于踏进一个新年代的决心,绝不能念旧或复旧。每个人似乎都在追讨这八年的政治缺失,但执政者也必须懂得接收过去的结果,重新出发。即将建立的政府团队不应该找过去年代的风云人物,不应该找党中大老,而应该任用有才能的年轻人,让新气候与新主意开创新台湾。
第二个条件随著第一个条件而来:如果政府团队清新而年轻,那将是一个懂得和解的团队。新政府应该扫除所有使人民分裂的障碍,尊重这几个月不同而多元的意见表达。当个尊重者、聆听者、聚合者,而且这不应该被当成空话或是口号。接下来的政治作为应以此为先,文化与教育层面的发展(凝聚人民认同)应以此为重,决策的制定与施行应以此为准。
我们接著谈第三个条件,那就是新团队必须重视市民、地方政府以及民间团体的参与。如今一党独大,中央、立法院与大部分地方政府被掌控在同一政党手中,这不能不说是一项隐忧。对于这项隐忧,新政府必须在讨论与协调的过程多付出心力,再统合大多数人的意见。新的政治风格若要形成,端赖新政府是否能够活络地方民主并鼓励市民参与。举例而言,台湾是资讯科技的天堂,而资讯科技提供的服务必须能够用来帮助民主革新。
坚持市民参与使我们看到成功执政的最后一个条件,落实新的生态与社会模式势在必行。新政府不能只想著经济成长率,最迫切的事在于质的提升与人性的成长。从这点看来,竞选期间两位候选人的言论尚不够令人信服。我们衷心期望执政者能带领台湾成为一个模范国家,实现社会和谐与环境和谐。如此一来,在国际社会上台湾将会被重视、被尊重、被聆听。
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附加的多媒体:
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週五, 28 三月 2008 19:24

你我都是陈冠希

媒体私刑绝对不等于言论自由。如果无法看清这两者的差别,你我都有可能成为下一个陈冠希。

李礼君 撰文

香港艺人陈冠希私照外流风波似乎已渐平息。然而,被此案卷入的艺人遭到换角、广告被撤之类事件仍时有所闻。况且,根据媒体的报导习惯来判断,此案免不了日后又被端出来冷菜热炒一番,再配上几道「欲照一览表」之类的可口小点,届时又可猎得许多眼球。另外,最近送修电脑的人想必得先好好研究一下资料加密的技术…
当然,没有人想成为下一个陈冠希。但事实上,正是我们共同创造了陈冠希,而后又合力摧毁了陈冠希。
私照外流的第一周,「你抓到几张?」成了众多网友的问候语。只要在网站或部落格摆上陈的名字,点击率便迅速冲破百万。就在陈宣布退出演艺圈之时,他的千张裸照已被制成光碟在纽约、深圳、加拿大等地华人社区热卖,「制作成本低廉,在华埠却可卖到二十元美金。」(注)媒体记者们更是充分发挥「回收再利用」的精神,将网上搜寻到的裸照大喇喇地放上版面,反正打了马赛克,套上几个「疑似」、「据传」的开头语,再摆上几个吸引窥淫目光的耸动标题,不愁不成为报刊架上的抢手货。
在这个舆论至上、讯息爆炸的时代里,「多数」便是正义。只要人数够多,随时可以把任何人抓来游街示众。不需要审判,更不需要法律。
许多不同的文化都有「私刑」存在。例如中国古代,通奸女子的刑罚(如吊打、活埋、浸猪笼等)常由宗族执行,且多有「示众」的规定。十九世纪末叶的美国,私刑常被用来对付黑人,直到上世纪六○年代才渐消失。私刑的存在,正是「多数暴力」的展现:在众人的围观、默许甚至参与下,对「罪人」施以酷刑。
在二十一世纪的今日,私刑转换了面貌,以一种更加隐晦、不见血且「不在场」的方式被执行。在道德的大旗下,黏上一层商业利益的标签,以消费的方式堂皇进行。围观者不须听见受刑者的哭号,也不必被迫向罪人投石,只要愉悦地消费这些八卦资讯,在众家媒体的通力围剿下,哪个罪人敢不乖乖俯首认罪?
当然,我们可以对陈冠希及众女星的私生活嗤之以鼻,但这并不表示他们的人权理应遭受践踏。如果他们伤风败俗,那么将这些照片四处转贴的千万网民该当何罪?如果陈辜负了大众对「偶像」的期待,那么,又是谁将陈塑造成一个偶像?不就是那些镇日追逐偶像新闻的「粉丝」吗?再看看那些对外籍配偶、外劳充满歧视意味的新闻标题吧。被施以私刑的对象,也常与大众对弱势者的刻板印象有关。媒体很难负起教育大众的职责,因为他们乐于做个媚俗的打手。
媒体私刑绝对不等于言论自由。如果无法看清这两者的差别,你我都有可能成为下一个陈冠希──即使我们不是明星。

注:请见《星岛日报》2月26日报导。

附加的多媒体:
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週五, 28 三月 2008 19:20

对抗全球暖化是人性之战

贫穷与全球暖化这两场对抗赛应同时进行,不可冒一丝取此舍彼之险。
否则,穷人将再次沦为此对抗战中的输家。

魏明德 撰文 林虹秀 翻译 黄嘉琳 摄影

全球暖化对抗赛在二○○七年出现了崭新面貌。尽管当中仍有许多具体事项尚待考量,悬而未决;然可肯定的是在未来几年内,投注在这场赛事的财务与人力将大幅增加,以对抗这空前的大挑战。这的确是个好消息。全球暖化议题的进展,反映出全体人类先前对此议题所采的敌对意见已有所改变。
另一方面,贫穷对抗赛仍在持续奋战中。联合国约于二○○○年规划出「千禧年发展目标」的蓝图,并希望于二○二五年之际消弭赤贫。此一目标在过去看来似乎是项不可能的任务;如今人类显然已具备实践目标的办法与所需知识了。
不过,要达成消弭赤贫的崇高目标,目前所动员的力量却远不及所需。在消除贫穷与减缓全球暖化这两个目标之间,我们可能目睹了一些微妙的取舍现象。
当然,这两者本身并不相互冲突,甚至可说是相辅相成:气候变迁引起的自然灾害若发生在非洲或贫苦的亚洲沿海,贫穷根本无法消除。水和森林本为稀少资源,水耗损与森林滥伐却削减了赖此为生的人们的可用资源。然而,国际信贷遵循的是协商法则,玩的是权力游戏,从这些游戏中真正得利的是那些正在崛起的开发中国家,而非赤贫之国(最新资料显示,赤贫人口占全球总人口数约六分之一)。开发中国家过度仰赖科技,因而造成高度污染,碳排放量高:环境清理补助金主要流向这些国家。贫穷国家则指那些不排放温室气体的国家,这些国家可能会被排除在新的全球补助机制外。因此,全球暖化议题成为已开发国家散播、贩售科技的藉口;让开发中国家(中阶国家, middle-income nations)藉此从众多国际补助金中获利。
虽然,世界治理仍存有恼人问题:它缺乏让人裁断优先顺序、政策选择的全面机制。但从此刻起,贫穷与全球暖化这两场对抗赛应同时考量、进行,不可冒一丝取此舍彼之险。否则,穷人会再次沦为此对抗战中的输家。
最后,全球暖化对抗战不应仅被视为一项单纯的科技挑战,而应以政治与人道主义立场来看待。单靠一个高尔(Al Gore)出面解决全球暖化议题是不够的。我们还需要有个甘地,时时提醒世人人道、社会与心灵等岌岌可危的议题。
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附加的多媒体:
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