Erenlai - Setareki Ledua
Setareki Ledua

Setareki Ledua

Traditional Sailor (Sailina Vessel Uto Ni Yalo)

Tuesday, 03 December 2013 15:23

下次,我將從斐濟航向台灣

撰文|Setareki Ledua
翻譯|Serena Chao

我航海,是為了傳承古老文化,拯救海洋生態。
來到台灣這片土地,讓我更期待下一回從海上來的交流。

位於台灣東南方大約四十英里的海上,有座名叫「蘭嶼」的小島。由台灣前往蘭嶼,搭渡輪得花兩個半小時,搭飛機得花二十分鐘。而若是駕著像我航渡太平洋所用的「神靈之心」號(Uto Ni Yalo)這樣的木舟前往,在完美的季風之下以平均八至九節的速度前進,大概需要四、五個小時──跑一趟下來,對我應該還算輕鬆愉快。

人之島,復振造舟文化

Lanyu是該島的中文稱法,英文的意思是「蘭花之島」。當地居民向來稱該島為「達悟之島」(Ponso no Tao),意思是「人的島嶼」。我聽說「蘭嶼」這名字源自多年前該島曾有蘭花參賽得名;然而回想我停留島上期間,蘭花說真的難得一見,倒是不時有山羊映入眼簾。

今日的蘭嶼由六個村落組成,儘管島上的人口不多,但對於打造獨木舟的這項傳統,當地人仍然不斷努力維護。達悟族人只要年滿十八歲,都會被期待去打造出一艘自己的獨木舟,不過近來習俗有變,年輕人常延後到二、三十歲時才著手,而且這個現象日益普遍。在打造獨木舟的過程中,社區的集體努力至關重要。一旦島上有艘獨木舟打造完成,當地居民便會舉辦慶祝儀式。打造獨木舟這項遠近馳名的蘭嶼原住民技藝,目前仍處於復振過程的緊要關頭。

保存這項傳統是當地耆老們的深切盼望,而島上的小學課堂恰成了這項努力的焦點。我們走訪了蘭嶼的朗島國小,校長Syamen Womzas(胡龍雄)提到為了復振攸關獨木舟的兩項傳統──造船與航海──校方努力與教育部協商,希望將兩項傳統納入學校的課外活動中。如今,經常性帶領學生到耆老的造船現場見習,是校方課外活動的一部分,好讓學子們能親炙獨木舟的打造過程,並從中學習。

蘭嶼,斐濟,充滿相似性

達悟人在蘭嶼所教導的造舟方式,其實與我們在大洋洲的傳承方式頗為相像:打造獨木舟的過程並無事前計畫或草圖。做兒子的僅跟自己的父祖二輩學習,他所有的倚靠,不過是觀察與實習。

此外,達悟人蓋獨木舟,木材取自於麵包樹,用來組裝船體的黏著劑,則是該樹的汁液。在我家鄉斐濟的一位獨木舟達人崔.吳樂甲(Tui Vulaga)也曾提到,在他的村落拉塢(Lau)這個地方,打造獨木舟的木料也來自麵包樹和瓊崖海棠(Dilo Tree),而它們的汁液也被用來做為黏著劑。

儘管這類的黏著劑並不太耐用,但卻也能使船體變得相對輕盈。這有利於達悟人的航行,因為他們善於逆風划槳,而非馭風揚帆。達悟的朋友告訴我,就算揚帆,他們多半也只挑順風的時機。

除了造舟與航行的技術,我還發現了一些達悟語的辭彙,聽來也像極了咱們斐濟語言。比如說:「ulu」是「頭殼」,「daliga」是 「耳朵」,「mata」是「眼睛」,「gusu」是「嘴巴」,「tina」是「母親」,「tama」是「父親」等等;而在數字方面,「lima」、「vitu」、「walu」則分別代表著「五」、「七」與「八」。只不過很遺憾,這次只有短暫停留,我對達悟族語言無法通盤理解,也無法從中汲取更多資訊。

寶島,加入我的天馬行空吧!

這次走訪台灣、分享我的航海經驗,很感謝總有聽眾願意聽聽我這後生晚輩天馬行空的想法。在蘭嶼,我就向學校建議,假使物價持續攀升不降,將來有一天島上族人說不定買不起機票或船票,因此打造獨木舟或許正是永續的解決之道。我是認真地這麼想著──蘭嶼的季風如此完美,無時無刻莫不吹著南風或東南風。甚至航海經驗讓我想像著一個更完美的壯舉:駕著「神靈之心」這樣的獨木舟在台灣進行環島航行。

台灣朋友們對這些狂想的熱情回應,令我對「神靈之心」的台灣之行更迫不及待了,真希望這事能盡快實現,更進一步重新連結台、斐兩地的南島民族,這也是我這次代表斐濟來到這裡的最大意義。

照片提供/Setareki Ledua


希望之島,航出壯麗願景

編譯|編輯部

木舟是玻里尼西亞(Polynesia)地區傳統的航海工具。太平洋島民的古老航海技術,透過辨認日月星辰導航、藉季風驅動船隻,就能夠跨越大洋。到了現代,來自太平洋各群島的有志之士於近年成立了「太平洋航海者基金會」(Pacific Voyagers Foundation),形成跨國的交流網絡,企圖重現島際之間的長程航行。

他們復原了傳統木舟,並輔以現代科技,打造出由七艘木舟所組成的Vaka Moana船隊。這七艘木舟主都以風力驅動,設計上融合了傳統的船體結構與現代的綠能科技;在概念上,每艘木舟都像是一座浮島,是傳達團結、合作與親愛觀念的「希望之島」(Island of Hope)。這支船隊在2011年4月正式啟動第一次橫跨大洋的遠程航行,船員由來自太平洋各島的航海家與世界各地的熱血志願者所組成,總計以以近兩年的時間完成了一場繞行了大半個太平洋的壯遊。藉此,他們活化、傳承傳統的航海技術,促進太平洋島民之間的文化交流;並且提醒海洋生態的危機,宣揚海洋保育的重要性。

目前,這些太平洋航海者們正積極籌備將航向西太平洋的第二次遠程航行,很可能在不久的未來就會造訪東亞。古老的太平洋航海智慧,出現在台灣的海平面上的那一刻,且讓我們拭目以待。

03-Simon-K-Ager-pacific voyager

攝影/Simon K. Ager

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12月 - 紀念日:特別的一天

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Wednesday, 28 August 2013 16:25

From Orchid Island, With Love

Impressions of another island

About 40 miles southeast of Taiwan lies an island called Lanyu, which means "Orchid Island" in English. The local people on the island used to call this island Bon Showao Dawa which means island people. However, after winning an orchid race a long time ago the island became known as Lanyu. It is actually rare to see an orchid on the island, I saw more goats than orchids during my stay there.

Currently the island is comprised of six villages and one tribe called the Yami (or the Tao). Despite the island's small population the local people on Lanyu have been working hard to keep the tradition of canoe building alive. Each man is expected to build a canoe by the time he reaches the age of 18, however, it is becoming more common for young men on the island to wait until they reach their twenties or thirties before they start building their own canoe. Community efforts are critical in the process of canoe building and once the canoe is built the local people on the island will have a ceremony to celebrate.

It is in the deepest interests of the island's elders to preserve the tradition of canoe building and efforts to preserve this tradition focus on the island's elementary school. According to Principal Syamen Womzas at Lanyu Elementary School, they have been trying their best to negotiate with the Department of Education to revive the tradition of canoe building as well as sailing by including these activities as a form of extra curricular activity at school.

As part of the school's extra curricular activity, it often takes its students to watch the elders build canoes so that they can learn from participating in the canoe building process.

The manner in which they teach canoe building on Lanyu is similar to that in Lau, because no plan or drawing is involved in the canoe building process. The son just learns from his father or grandfather, by watching and practicing.

The locals use Breadfruit trees to build their canoes, they use the gum from the trees as glue to join the planks together. It doesn't last long but its lighter for when they want to row against the wind instead of sailing. They only use the sails if they are going with the wind or with the wind at their backs.

The Taiwanese take pride in their culture and tradition and have strived hard to revive ancient songs and dances with a lot of passion. Their interest in how our ancestors sailed the ocean is huge. After being invited to the Formosa Song and Dance Troupe, formed by indigenous people from the 14 tribes in Taiwan in 1991, they were given an insight into traditional Fijian navigation and sailing. The Taiwanese believe that the fruit of the barringtonia asiatica — vutu in Fijian and which grow in the coastal area of southern and northern Taiwan and Orchid Island — is dispersed by the ocean connecting the islands and shows how humans migrated (floated) from Taiwan into the many lands of the Pacific spreading their seeds of hope, possibility, culture, language and knowledge.

The Drua Project — a proposal to build a drua in Fiji that will sail to the Pacific Arts festival in Guam in 2016 — is of particular interest to the Hualien Tribal College (Taiwan Indigenous), which may send one of its own to Fiji in August to learn and take back our traditional boat-building skills. There's only one club in Taiwan which teaches about the sea and I was glad to be back in the water with some of its members. I was taken aback by their surprise when I returned from paddling three miles out. One of the old men thought I was going to paddle back to Fiji.

The Taiwanese pride themselves in traditional revival and the Formosa troupe, which travels the world performing in theatre and stages, is working with other stakeholders to try trace their past to revive all indigenous cultures, songs and dances in all their tribes.

Earlier on, I did my first presentation at the National Taiwan University, which was organised by Taiwan Society of Pacific Studies and co-hosted with the Taiwan Indigenous Peoples Resource Center, with the support of the Council of Indigenous People. This workshop was well attended with more than 100 participants of all ages and walks of life. They were given an insight into the Te Mana O Te Moana voyage and the Uto Ni Yalo bole, a traditional challenge that was written by Manoa Rasigatale. It was only right that I made this traditional call as this here is a new journey for me and the Uto ni Yalo Trust (formerly the Fiji Islands Voyaging Society) with our Taiwanese friends and kin. The bole is what they have requested I must teach them before I leave but first they must understand the meaning of the chant. I began with short clips of the soon-to-be released documentary, Our Blue Canoe. Then I shared with them the history of the Uto ni Yalo Trust and its role in the epic voyage across over 50,000 kilometres of the Pacific Ocean. I shared with them some activities we've carried out such as turtle tagging around Ringgold Islands and whale watching near Ovalau, the community visits and sails with children and how we are trying to reach out to revive our traditional sailing knowledge.

After Hualien, I travelled to Taitung, one and half hours by train towards the southern side of the island, and was welcomed by the students and principal of the National Guan Shan Vocational Senior High School, which has a special class for students learning about their culture, carving, weaving and traditional designs. Fiji must do the same if we are to safeguard our traditional knowledge. We must act fast and also start a school to revive the ancient arts of navigation and boat-building for those with the knowledge back home are in old age and time is running out on us. We need to teach primary schoolchildren. I hope the Ministry of Education can allow such a school or a special class for each school to learn chants, songs and meke.

There is much to learn from the Taiwanese and there are a lot of similarities between us. While I was on the island, I discovered there were some words that I found were similar to our Fijian language, such as "ulu" for head, "daliga" for ear, "mata" for eye, "gusu" for mouth, "lima" for five, "vitu" for seven, "walu" for eight, "tina" for mother, and "tama" for father. My only regret is that I didn't fully understand their language so I was unable to dig for more information.

Seeing the response from the people of Taiwan made me eager to see the UTO NI YALO sailing up to Taiwan as soon as possible in order to reinforce the message that I had shared with them on behalf of Fiji, and hopefully reconnect the people of both our islands.

moce mada vakalailai



Photo by Tupe Lualua


Watch here a video overview of the workshop in Orchid Island

 

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