Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Thursday, 01 March 2012
Thursday, 01 March 2012 18:29

南方青年的凡人夢

人生,什麼才稱得上夢想呢?郭台銘曾批評當代年輕人「只以開咖啡店為滿足」。現在,南方傳來一股聲音,想要理直氣壯回覆郭董:實踐自我的生活,就是最「像樣」的夢想!

採訪.撰文|行南編輯部(李明容、黃立恆、劉晏如)

Thursday, 01 March 2012 16:27

Youth Design a New Future for Themselves.

‘Youth Design’ is a project of the Taiwan Alliance for Advancement of Youth Rights and Welfare (TAAYRW), set up to provide foundational work skills and professional design training, allowing young people to familiarize themselves with design related jobs, and helping them to accumulate work experience, to successfully orientate themselves in the job market, and to develop their skills.

Senior project manager Hong Xiaoping explained, "It’s mostly design classes, for one hundred hours, work ethics, financial management and work shadow, to understand the nature of the work in the design and printing industries. Including classes on CV writing and team-work, allowing students to understand that having talent alone is not enough.

Opportunities for internships are also available depending on your CV and on mock interviews, as a means of pairing off placements and interns. Students submit their CV themselves, and have a choice of 2 or 3 companies. The internship allowance is provided my TAAYRW."

Hong Xiaoping told us that often companies question the value of having young people who have given up on their studies and have no professional background interning at their workplaces.Many firms discover that these young people have a lot more potential than they had imagined, although they often find they have to adjust their methods and preconceived ideas when dealing with them. Young people nowadays tend to question everything, and don’t like being bossed about. Once they are clear on the purpose of what they are doing, and they know its significance, they are willing to go and do it.

LIDAHUA_S

We also interviewed the Secretary General of the TAAYRW, Yeh Dahwa, and asked her to explain the idea behind the ‘YouthDesign’ project.

TAAYRW was founded eight and a half years ago, with the primary aim of changing the stereotypical idea within society that the youth are ‘dependent’, and instead to portray them as ‘citizens-in-the-making’. We promote rights including for welfare protection, public participation, recreation, health, education, and employment.

Society needs to see the changes that ordinary young people are going through, on the cusp of becoming mature citizens of society, and this needs to be supported by society, in terms of families, communities and educational institutions, and foster an atmosphere of social participation, citizenship and a safety net for those who fall into poverty.

When looking at the development of young people, you can’t just look at the situation from one angle, like focusing on those who come from under privileged backgrounds, or on the school entry system

The mainstream test-focused system.

Approximately 90% of young people make their life choices within the frame of the test-focused system, they are restricted by this system of values. If they don’t get into a good school or get good grades, their value to society diminishes, to the point that some of them might not even be considered people. Moreover, whenever there is any activity that contradicts this mainstream ideology appears, it is quickly blown out of proportion by the media, and becomes so-called deviant or antisocial behavior.

The question is, are the resources and choices offered by society enough? Everybody is forced to take the same path, but some people from different backgrounds are not suitable to follow this mainstream path, yet they are still constrained by it.

If the mainstream education system continues to bread people who are just good at pursuing good grades, then it will suppress the emergence of many kinds of creative talent, who will have to rely solely on their own effort, without support. For example a lot of people only have the chance to realize their talent abroad, why don’t we cultivate this kind of talent in Taiwan? The education policy focuses on collecting what is already a finished product, instead of nurturing new talent, it is very short-sighted.

There needs to be some planning ahead when it comes to policy. For example, if someone enjoys painting and creative work, how can we help them become a designer or someone involved in creative activities. This process cannot be achieved in one go, but rather needs to be cumulative. With this in mind, we hope that through or training project “Good Design”, we can let people know that the talent training that the Taiwanese government often mentions needs to be a cumulative, top-bottom process. It requires consideration from the business point of view, and investment from the education aspect. Moreover, it should support people before they have made a name for themselves.

Shattering some myths

A lot of people believe young people are part of “The strawberry generation” (Taiwanese term for those born between 1980-90, that were raised well off), that they are not good at dealing with pressure, that they are cold towards society. But why do people have to use this label? If people did a bit of research and widened their horizons before attaching these kind of labels, then these kinds of terms wouldn’t even exist.

We have seen a lot of employers who are interested in making use of young people’s energy, passion, and creativity. But they are scared because of the stereotypes they often see in the media, such as young people being hard to control or egocentric, so the first time they employ a young person they are usually wary. We feel that our organizations activities and accomplishments have become very important. We have invited a careers coach to serve as a bridge, helping companies and employers understand how to interact with young people. We hope that through these training activities, we can make people understand a lot of these young people are not “strawberries”; they work very hard and very seriously at their jobs, but this hard effort is not reported by the media.

Translated from the Chinese by Daniel Pagan Murphy, Conor Stuart

Chen Jiajun, the girl who participated in "Youth design" program tells us her story...

Li Xin, one of the participants of "Youth Design" shares her experiences studying in Taiwan and Denmark, and her determination to work in the art field, and how the project enabled her in this goal:

 

Thursday, 01 March 2012 16:07

百種「人身」,百種「養生」

(繪圖 /笨篤)

風行於台灣社會的「養生」熱潮,容易引發民眾的盲從跟隨,但每人身體不同,應各自發展出不同的養生之道。

 

有位諧星已經90歲了,上節目時還抽雪茄,主持人問他:「難道沒有醫生告訴過您,抽煙有害健康?」他搔搔頭說,「我不記得了,也許有幾位,但他們早就死了!」

最近看到幾本《名醫談養生》、《名人談養生》,就想到前面這個故事──名醫或名人的養生方法是放諸四海皆準嗎?

「有名」迷思誤導民眾

為什麼找名醫談養生?因為醫生比較懂健康保養,而名醫當然更懂;為什麼找名人談養生?這我就不知道了,也許很多人是名人或名醫的「粉絲」,名人或名醫有既定的市場,很多人願意學他們的養生方法。但事實上,這是很糟糕的事,若他們的資訊錯誤,就成了錯誤的流傳,這樣不但無助於養生,更危害了健康。

就像有陣子某位女星節食瘦身,許多少女因學習她的方法而得到「厭食症」;或者有位名醫說一天要喝3000c.c的水、要跑5000公尺的路來養生,有人跟著做,卻做出毛病來。這種盲從養生就像一般人模仿特技表演,結果是很危險的;即使如此,名人或名醫的養生偏方仍被大家津津樂道。

某報社出的名醫養生書《那些名醫教我的事:40堂養生樂活課》中,40位名醫暢談各具特色的健康訣竅,加上40篇專家的權威講評,經過報社強力促銷,一個多月就6刷上市,創下兩萬本的驚人銷售量,可見名醫魅力非凡。這本書中醫生講了很多「偏方」其實是有爭議的,專家權威的講評也讓讀者有些混淆──我能否照我心中崇拜的名醫那樣,使用同樣的養生之道?

「養」出最佳生活模式

如果您仔細想想,這些名醫如此養生,他們的平均壽命是否比一般人長?從台北市醫師公會的統計數字來看,醫生的平均壽命並不高於一般人,就像我這篇文章最前面所舉的笑話,醫生可能活得沒有他的病人久,更有許多慢性病病人,常比照顧他的人活得還久。所以每位名醫的養生方法只能提供參考而已,決定一個人的健康或壽命有很多因素,有基因、環境、人格特質、家人社會的影響……,其中,生活方式占相當重要的一部分。

什麼是「養生」?就是以很好的生活模式,讓身體保持最佳健康狀態,或甚至讓身體比以前更健康,不用藥也能控制住已有的疾病。簡言之,就是「健康的生活模式」(Healthy Life Style)。

可是一般人對「養生」往往有一些錯誤的觀念,例如認為養生一定要用補品或保養品、在生活上一定要有什麼禁忌,甚至認為養生可以治癒疾病、養生可以抗老化等等,這些觀念都有一定程度的偏差。事實上「養生」應至少包含下列幾點:

⊙ 健康的人生觀。

⊙ 飲食管理。

⊙ 休息和睡眠管理。

⊙ 規律的運動。

⊙ 戒除不良的嗜好。

⊙ 和諧家庭或兩性關係。

⊙ 在團體中與人良性互動或積極的社會參與。

⊙ 經常評估自己的健康,並修正養生觀或生活模式。

亂守成規徒增焦慮

吃補、吃素、健康或有機食品在「養生」這件事裡只占一小部分。為何有些人吃了這些東西「效果」很好,因為他們也有規律的運動、休息和睡眠管理、沒有不良嗜好,加上美滿的家庭、滿意的社群關係;反過來說,只限制飲食,其他養生配套卻沒有,那只有徒增「飲食焦慮」而已──這也不能吃,那也不能碰,體重又減不下來,血壓、血糖、血脂還是一樣高,生活沒意思,還不如靠藥物控制,再配合生活的改善。

在傳統養生觀中,很多禁忌並無根據,尤其是那些東西不能一起吃、那些東西相剋等等,許多說法莫衷一是、讓人無所是從,多半是民間習俗以訛傳訛,沒有人去對照研究或科學考證。舉例來說,婦女產後「坐月子」是大家熟悉的養生模式,但西方的婦產科醫生就很不以為然,他們認為婦女產後就開始運動、正常作息,並不會影響傷口癒合、也不會使產婦們將來身體虛弱,即使吹到冷風,也不會導致關節疼痛。「養生」是由每個人的身體狀況來做生活的調整,如果只是附和習俗,有時不但看不到效果,又花了錢和精神、讓他們對自己的健康更沒信心。

人生觀決定健康狀態

前段提到的「養生八要」中,那樣是首要?絕對不是「吃補」。古人說「民以食為天」,那是在吃不飽、餓死人的時代,今天在台灣,大部分人的疾病反倒是營養過剩的「代謝症候群」。「吃補」的重要性不及「休息睡眠」、「規律運動」,而這兩項又不及「健康的人生觀」、「戒除不良嗜好」、「良好的家庭和社會關係」來得重要,有健康的人生觀、美滿的生活,每個人建立起自己的「健康生活模式」,這才是健康長壽最大的保證。

所以在《名醫是這樣養生》這本書中,各位讀者要參考的應該是他們的「人生觀」,他們如何經營家庭生活、如何在有限的時間內調整自己的腳步、做健康生活的管理,而不是學他們吃什麼、做什麼運動。這本書也找我談我的養生觀,我表達了對「養生」的基本概念,也順著他們的意思講一些養生的原則:所謂養生原則是每個人都能做、做無大礙,然後以此原則去設計每個人更詳細的養生方法。我當時講了一個大陸流行的「養生口訣」,共16個字:

「二葷八素、飯後百步、勞逸適度、不要動怒」

health02_copy

放開心胸,擺脫束縛,才可能找出專屬自己的養生之道,從而擁有開闊的人生。

好脾氣帶來好身體

這個養生原則並沒有常見的補方或禁忌,也沒有嚴格的數字要求,二葷八素、飯後走百步是飲食健康、規律運動的原則。但更有用的是後面的「勞逸適度、不要動怒」,這對養生來說更為重要。「勞逸適度」意味著要有紓壓、要有足夠的休閒和睡眠,但也要積極去過每一天,年輕時不能遊手好閒、退休時不能在家養老,總是要有社會參與,積極正向的人生觀。

至於「不要動怒」更是「養生」重要的人生哲學,「動怒」在生理上會使血壓或血糖升高、體內類固醇增加,是不健康的,所以「生氣會死掉很多細胞」有其道理;更重要的是,「動怒」在心靈上是負面的,一個人有再多財富、再大的權勢還不如內心的平安喜樂,只有心靈健康,以「養生」去追尋更長遠的健康才有意義。所以我一直強調「養生」首要在於「健康的人生觀」,也是中國古代所謂的「修身養性」。年紀愈大、愈要思考這樣的人生哲理──還有什麼好爭的、還有什麼好生氣的?「養生」要先「安內」、再來「健外」,「內功」是中國人調息聚氣的「養生」法,有它的道理,「火氣大」的人再怎麼補身、休息對健康而言都是枉然。

「客製化」養生之道

從醫學的角度來看,一個現代人對「養生」要有「個人化」的想法,因為每個人的基因組成不同,決定健康的因素也不同;從人文的思考來看,每個人的人生觀應該是不一樣的,所以養生的原則也應該有所差異。在資訊化的醫療時代中,每一種疾病的治療,都會走向「個人化」的醫療,譬如同樣罹患乳癌、同樣條件的病人,採用的治療藥物是不一樣的,因為病人身上的基因不同;而伴隨著藥物治療的外在條件,如經濟情況、家庭環境因素、病人的取捨等等都形成「個人化」乳癌治療的選擇。所以,養生方法應該是非常「個人化」的,每個人都有不同的設計和規則,為自己建立最好的健康生活模式。

三個問題找出保健良方

您要如何設計自己的養生方法呢?從大原則來說,可以思考這三個問題:

一、要嚴謹的養生,還是輕鬆愉快的養生?

這取決於個人的人生觀。嚴謹的養生就是對自己要求嚴格,要做很詳細的健康檢

查、要按規矩吃三餐、睡眠、運動;輕鬆愉快的養生就是不給自己太大壓力,只

照一些養生守則來過日子。要選擇嚴謹或輕鬆愉快的養生,取決於每個人的

人生觀,就像有人說,我要努力活到120歲;有人則認為,我要快快樂樂活到

80歲,就會發展出不一樣的養生方法。

二、生活配合養生,還是養生配合生活?

有許多養生方法的窒礙難行是因為現實生活難以配合,例如全家人吃飯的習慣不同、上班時間和環境難以運動等等。所以除非要很嚴謹、重新改變生活來配合養生,否則只能調整養生方法來配合生活,才能輕鬆愉快的養生。

三、是為了保健而養生,還是長期對抗疾病來養生?

這是兩種截然不同的養生方式。大部分人為了保健而養生,也許他們有些小病,人家告訴他們養生之後可以不藥而癒──於是有人說這套養生方法讓他們血壓下降、血糖變低、關節不痛了,即大家崇尚的「自然療癒」。但其中仍有很多值得注意的地方,畢竟「養生」和「治病」不同,有些疾病或症狀可以藉健康生活模式得到解除,包括壓力大引起的「身心症候群」,當然也有血壓高、血糖高、關節痛等等。但若是真正的高血壓、糖尿病、關節炎,任何養生方法的改變都很有限,藥物或醫療才能真正解決問題。所以,另一種養生是要長期對抗疾病,養生和藥物醫療並存,此種養生方式的設計趨向於嚴謹的養生,要和您的醫生、營養師一起商量。

安心自在最重要

關於「養生」,現代人要有現代文明的想法,既不能排除醫藥,又不能迷信醫藥,也許以醫藥為主,也許更重養生。底下這個笑話就是個例子:

有個人很不喜歡醫藥,可是對自己的養生之道又沒信心,他還是去了醫院。回家後,太太問他:「醫生開藥了沒?」

他說:「醫生當然開了藥方,要不然他怎麼生活下去!」

太太又問:「那你去藥房拿藥沒?」

他說:「我當然去藥房拿了藥,要不然藥師怎麼生活下去!」

太太說:「藥在那裡?」

他說:「我把藥都扔了,因為我也要生活下去!」

所以,如果是您,您怎麼「養生」?

 

撰文|Lin Poyer  翻譯|Serena Chao

二戰倖存世代正在急速凋零,大洋之上小國寡民的戰爭記憶,就要來不及被世人聽取。楚克,一群世居西南太平洋一處美麗環礁的南島人,要娓娓道出那些年漫天烽火中的無奈與悲傷……

父子衝突、新舊文化傳承、青年的蛻變與成長……,這些老掉牙的故事元素,《陣頭》一片幾乎都含括了。但為何在反覆吟唱的陳腔中,這部電影仍舊深深打動人心?

片名∣《陣頭》

導演∣馮凱

出品年份∣2012年

上映時間∣2012年1月(福斯發行)


原先居於平凡世界的英雄,起先拒絕歷險的召喚,最後不情願地踏上征途,他遇見師傅、接受試煉、結交盟友、勇敢地面對敵人,他一度被進逼到洞穴最深處,接受各式各樣的苦難折磨,一旦咬牙通過所有關卡,他將毫不眷戀地帶著寶物(無論這個寶物是實質或精神上的)榮耀歸返平凡世界,展開另一段的旅程。

主流電影的不敗祕笈

有電影編劇大師美譽的佛格勒(Christopher Vogler)1992年出版的著作《作家之路》(The Writer’s Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers),在好萊塢早已成為人手一本的武林祕笈。身為好萊塢資深故事分析師,佛格勒在這本如今已出至第三版的經典之作中,先是巧妙將坎柏(Joseph Campbell)的神話學改造成情節寫作的規範,再把心理學大師榮格(Carl G. Jung)的原型概念(archetype)應用在角色塑造上,讓情節與角色的功能相互支持,強化故事的完整性。佛格勒認為,世界上的每個故事,其實都包含了幾項在神話、童話、夢境與電影中找得到的基本元素,而這些基本元素被統稱為「英雄旅程」。理解「英雄的旅程」,不僅破解了故事的密碼,甚至可能指引自我或是他者的人生。

乍聽之下,這本從原先的陽春七頁備忘錄逐漸發展而成的美國主流電影攻略本,似乎只是好萊塢電影中慣見的天真熱血美國夢的平面印刷輸出而已。然而仔細深究,佛格勒在書中竟是如此旁徵博引,從黃金年代的黑白電影、盧卡斯(George Lucas)的《星際大戰》(Star War)系列、迪士尼動畫、到21世紀的爆米花電影信手拈來,每一部電影之所以成功(無論票房還是評價),之所以影響每個世代、不同時代甚深,其文本原來皆可與「英雄的旅程」互通聲氣。

故事共鳴是賣座關鍵

每一段旅程,無論銀幕內外,其實都是程度不等的冒險。縱橫美國政、商、娛樂產業的好萊塢金牌製作人彼得.古柏(Peter Guber)在他的暢銷著作《會說才會贏》(Tell to Win)中以最耳熟能詳的電影為例,尖銳解構資本主義的終極奧祕。關鍵在於故事。不僅僅是電影文本中的故事,重要的是如何將之與你的目標對象的價值觀做出連結,讓聽故事的人產生共鳴、成為主動的參與者。

台灣近年強調文創產業,也懂得該賦予所欲販售的商品(無論有形無形)一個故事,可惜多數故事流於矯情造作無法熱血沸騰,最終只能落寞退場。如何說出一個扣人心弦的好故事?如何以故事激勵人心?如何憑藉故事絕處逢生?如何把故事說得像傳道般足以普渡眾生?魏德聖的《海角七号》與《賽德克.巴萊》,九把刀的《那些年,我們一起追的女孩》就是最典型的實務範例。

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領著一批雜牌軍,阿泰真能讓陣頭文化重新復甦嗎?他們背起鼓、扛起神明,一步一腳印地踏上環台之旅,在苦行的過程中重新了理解傳統文化的精神。


在此暫且先將電影本身拍得好不好、美學層次夠不夠高放在一旁,魏德聖從失意小導演到《海角七号》台灣影史票房紀錄保持者再到《賽德克.巴萊》台灣影史最昂貴製作的十二年奮鬥不懈歷程,九把刀從不愛念書的壞學生因為「沈佳宜」而考上名校後成為暢銷作家,再把自己的愛情故事寫成暢銷小說拍成台灣電影史上投資報酬率最高的純愛電影,兩人簡直成為「台灣夢」最平易親和的代言人。

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意外接下團長位置的阿泰,內心有些焦慮、茫然,但在從小陪著自己長大的陣頭神明眷顧下,他逐漸變得篤定而堅實。

觀眾渴求永恆理型

如果說古希臘哲學家柏拉圖(Plato)著名的「洞穴囚犯寓言」非但解釋了他的形上學概念,架構出感官(流動的,會死亡的)與「至善形式」(永恆不變)的二元論,更預示了數千年後「電影」這個介面之於所謂的完美與真實的本質性論述;那麼《海角七号》、《賽德克.巴萊》與《那些年,我們一起追的女孩》創下票房神話的背後,是否有與其呼應之處?

我無意在此掉書袋或班門弄斧,而是我真心以為,從古希臘真理到好萊塢資本主義聖經,一脈相承的文明軌跡,其實說明了「英雄的旅程」之所以能撼動人心,正是在於它的普世性。從《風雲人物》(It's a Wonderful Life)、《阿甘正傳》(Forrest Gump)、《永生樹》(The Tree of Life)到印度寶萊塢的《三個傻瓜》(3 Idiots)裡歷經磨難的英雄們如是,魏導的堅持相對於他電影中的阿嘉及莫那.魯道的堅持、九把刀的執著相對於電影裡柯騰的癡情,甚至其他如《雞排英雄》的阿華與《翻滾吧!阿信》的阿信的自我實踐亦然。

當台灣的觀眾宛如被催眠般地、瘋狂地進戲院一看再看上述電影時,究竟多數觀眾選擇相挺的主要理由,是讚頌其影像美學的逼人魔力?還是單純支持熱血導演(或戲外對應的真實事件、人物)從不輕言放棄又充滿號召力的可親特質?每個人買票進場觀賞電影的理由或許各異,所得到的共鳴程度或許不等,然而可以確認的是,無分古今中外,舞台下的觀眾永遠在舞台上尋求寄託。這樣的寄託,永遠與真實、夢想、英雄(廣義的尤其是脆弱的)相關;而所謂的舞台,其實也可能擴張解釋成政治的或其他的任何舞台。

草根英雄脫穎而出

拜2011年台灣電影總票房達十五億新台幣的亮眼成績所賜,2012年從開春到春節、元宵檔的一整個月內,總計有八部台灣電影上映(媒體戲稱為「天龍八部」),這是二十多年來未見的榮景。人人都想當英雄,然而假如為殘酷現實所迫,必須從最終票房表現來論英雄的話,在本文截稿之前「單日票房」逆勢上揚強壓《痞子英雄首部曲:全面開戰》的本土親情電影《陣頭》,極可能循去年破億賀歲片《雞排英雄》模式,成為「天龍八部」裡頭最意外的英雄。

《陣頭》是曾打造《飛龍在天》、《懷玉公主》、《天國的嫁衣》、《綠光森林》、《天下第一味》等多部高收視話題本土連續劇及偶像劇的金鐘獎最佳導演馮凱首度跨足大銀幕的電影作品,也是美商二十世紀福斯影片公司所發行「台灣.人.情」系列第二部(首部即是《雞排英雄》)。由於深受台中九天民俗技藝團輔導中輟生透過擊鼓重新出發的真實事件吸引,馮凱創造出一個不討喜程度比美《海角七号》阿嘉的「不情願英雄」——做事總是一頭熱而無法持久的陣頭世家接班人阿泰。這個缺乏耐性、有勇無謀的半吊子因一時衝動與世仇打賭而必須接下團長位置,除了必須收服一群由中輟生所組成的團員,更要以他自己的方式贏過對手,為這個眼看快要跟不上時代的團隊尋找新的商業演出機會,並且還要得到他那古板老爸的認可。




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資深演員阿西所扮演的老團長,生動刻畫了身為父親的期待與失落。但在兒子阿泰致力以全新方式傳承陣頭文化的過程中,他與阿泰之間的關係,也由衝突走向互相理解及認同。

真實情感牽動人心

傳統文化與新世代價值觀的創意結合,在許多標榜「全球情感在地文化」的各國草根電影中屢見不鮮,《陣頭》與先前的《巧克力重擊》、《戰.鼓》、《走出五月》各有部分重疊,我以為它相較之下勝在態度謙卑且鼓勵多元。馮凱以往執導的本土劇及偶像劇多半將女性刻畫成陰毒、孱弱或反智等負面角色,這回戲分最重的阿泰母親與原先是討債大姐大的團員敏敏一老一小兩女性,分別擔任阿泰與父親、與其他男性團員起爭執時的潤滑劑,又必須在阿泰失志毫無頭緒、任性不明究理時擔任嚴格的監督者,比起前述幾部台式鄉土草根電影中女性多半流於被動、刻板化,已顯進步許多。

《陣頭》的劇本編得豐富奇趣極具層次感,導演分鏡俐落、節奏流暢、技術環節相當到位,演員表現整齊,未如以往本土劇般過度灑狗血,尤其令人驚喜。資深演員阿西、廖峻與柯淑勤的堅強輔助,證明綠葉也能無比光彩奪目;策略性交錯選用真實技藝團員與年輕偶像出飾陣頭團員,既有勾勒台灣弱勢底層縮影的用心良苦,更靈活突顯各個團員有稜有角的立體性格與說服力。看得出來馮凱準確將各項賣座元素都塞進他的首部電影中;聰明的是,雜牌軍團結力量大的笑淚百出,以及比美《練習曲》一步一腳印的三太子徒步走台灣的草根文化包裝,甚至片尾成功營造情感宣洩(catharsis)的高潮表演,全都緊扣父子親情世代鴻溝這個母題,讓電影不至因炫技、玩鬧過了頭而遠離核心,而觀眾自始至終也都有確切的情感投射方位。

世代鴻溝考驗成長

從某種意義上來看,父親(或者「類父親」比如師傅等)角色一方面既象徵著我們的過去(無論追憶、緬懷抑或夢魘、創傷),一方面更暗示著我們的未來(無論期許還是逃避)。對於許多知名導演來說,父親形象即明白解釋了他們的創作緣起與人生態度,李安、蔡明亮、張作驥電影中鮮明的父子情感刻畫,就是非常經典的例子。此外,許多新銳導演的劇情長片首作,甚至許多有志於影像創作的學生導演的在學習作,不約而同鎖定父子關係大作文章,企圖藉由故事中親子關係的回溯、崩毀、重建與和解,以求取主人翁(多半是下一代)的真正成長。

以2011年為例,除了賣座電影《賽德克.巴萊》、《雞排英雄》與《翻滾吧!阿信》以極重比例強調父親對於兒子的影響,其他如《電哪吒》、《麵引子》、《皮克青春》以及描述祖孫情感的《走出五月》、《燃燒吧!歐吉桑》亦不遑多讓,企圖藉由不同世代的衝突、表面妥協、相互理解以至最後的真誠和解,吸引主流觀眾的最大共鳴。

超越傳統找到自我

《陣頭》也不例外,事實上此片或可視為馮凱與其資深電視製作人母親周遊女士的另一層對話。《陣頭》中不只阿泰與其父親時有齟齬,他們的世仇同樣有子欲接父不放的微妙心結,比較不同的是那位渴求父親稱讚的兒子阿賢具備紮實官將首底子,他後來竟被阿泰「收服」,兩個渴望對民俗技藝進行革新的第二代索性拋棄成見,阿賢以自己的深厚功夫補足阿泰滿懷全新創見卻可能流於空泛的不切實際,最終在台中市國際文化祭(美中不足的是,由於本片拍攝獲得台中市府大力支援,特意為胡志強市長置入了一個頗為多餘的鳴鐘開幕鏡頭)上合力以擊鼓、搖滾樂、現代舞為傳統陣頭編寫出新世紀的另一種可能性。

或許,馮凱也是透過這兩個角色各自的優缺點與最終的合體,向過去鋒芒總是蓋過他的母親證明,自己獨當一面完全沒問題。最終,這場「英雄的旅程」不只是關於阿泰與阿賢,也是關於創作者馮凱自己。

 

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Thursday, 01 March 2012 12:48

Tsai Ing-wen: Delusions of grandeur?

Recently, during the run-up to the Taiwanese 2012 general election, I remember talking to a Taiwanese friend of mine, a staunch supporter of the DPP. When asking him what he thought of Ma Ying-jeou, the KMT candidate, he answered: “自我感覺良好”, which could be translated as having delusions of grandeur, high views of oneself, someone with impossible targets to meet, etc. A few days later I mentioned this same conversation to my KMT supporting friend, and she responded by laughing it off and saying that Tsai Ing-wen, the DPP candidate, was the deluded one.

Aside from what this says about modern politics, which is basically a never-ending exercise in bickering and name-calling, what my second friend said about Tsai Ing-wen got me thinking; was she really deluded? Was there ever a real chance of her becoming the first female president of Taiwan? The election results were relatively close, although the victory was still clear for the ruling KMT party. The question is, how big a role did Tsai Ing-wen’s gender play in the results? And finally, was Taiwan, a country in which a large part of women are still often fairly submissive and meek towards men, really ready for its first female president?

Taiwan’s democratic history is very recent, by any standards. Since the first election after the martial law which happened in 1996, the Taiwanese have consistently and passionately campaigned and engaged in political activity. In Taiwan, however, most elections are not won based on personalities or appearances, the votes are rather cast based on family ties to either party or on the basis of one’s attitude towards China, which is the main conflicting point of policy. This allows for, barring some scandalous event such as the DPP corruption case of 2006, significantly less fluctuation in the number of votes from election to election, which made this year’s race an uphill battle for Tsai Ing-wen. It also means it is hard to estimate how many votes she might have garnered on the basis of being a woman. This is not to say that getting to the point of being a presidential candidate and coming so close isn’t remarkable in and of itself. On the contrary, many countries with more established democracies in Europe have never had a female candidate, so it is an impressive achievement indeed and says many good things of Taiwanese society.

Tsai Ing-wen is a very intelligent and intellectual woman who brought real depth to her party and forced people to take it more seriously. Departing from the extreme populism of the past, she strived to ensure that people saw that the DPP can be structured and offer a feasible alternative to the KMT. Whereas in other countries her gender would have been a massive issue remarked on constantly, to Taiwan’s credit it wasn’t a huge point in general, and she herself never made it one of the defining characteristics of her campaign.

In a particular example of just how little focus has been given on the fact that Tsai Ing-wen is a woman, both parties condemned former DPP chairman Shih Ming-the’s comments earlier in 2011 when he claimed that Tsai Ing-wen should reveal her sexual orientation, implying that she might be gay solely based on the fact that she is single. The comments also received strong criticism from gay rights and women’s groups who were outraged by the intrusion into her private life. Certain KMT members, however, insinuated that the comments might have been a subtle tactic by the DPP to get some sympathy votes. These accusations were fervently denied by the DPP, and Tsai Ing-wen herself gracefully declined to comment. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to consider the possibility that the KMT might have used her gender, if not in a direct fashion, then maybe in an implied one, as a weapon to further their belief that they are the only party fit to govern the island.

This KMT belief was strengthened by the 2006 corruption case involving DPP ex-president Chen Shui-bian mentioned above, which sadly seemed to point out that this exceptional woman’s race was doomed from the start. Unfortunately, this had nothing to do with her personal campaign, and everything to do with the recent history of her party. The messy trial and corruption problems of the recent past have dynamited the people’s trust in the DPP, and made it virtually impossible to win on this occasion. Others have pointed out to me the atrocities the KMT committed during its time in command; but to the voters, the most recent event is always the most vivid, and the DPP’s betrayal of the people’s trust is still fresh in people’s minds. At the end, this has to be the biggest contributing factor to the failure of Tsai Ing-wen’s failed campaign.

To extrapolate from Tsai Ing-wen’s particular case, the status of women in Taiwanese politics is looking positive. According to a United Nation’s survey, Taiwan is the fourth country in the world, and the first in Asia, when it comes to women’s rights. For such a small country and such a recent democracy, this is a monumental achievement. Moreover, over 20% of legislators in Taiwan are female, which is why it shouldn’t be surprising to see more female politicians, such as Tsai Ing-wen, little by little taking back a part of society that is usually heavily restricted to men. Hopefully she will help open the floodgates and start a new trend in which more and more Taiwanese women actively attempt to get involved in politics.

All things considered, I believe that Tsai Ing-wen’s gender was never the issue, but she was rather a crimeless victim of her party’s past. Sadly, if she had been the candidate in 2016, she might have stood a genuine chance, for she is a likeable, smart woman who seems to have a knack for politics. Finally, though, it appears my KMT friend was right, and it seems that her dreams of being president were just illusions, never to be realized.

Photograph by David Reid

 

 

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