Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Sunday, 11 December 2011

撰文︱廖梅璇 攝影|莊媛晰

 

《雷峰塔》

張愛玲著,趙丕慧

皇冠出版社

2010年09月出版

《易經》

THE BOOK OF CHANGE

張愛玲著,趙丕慧

皇冠出版社

2010年09月出版

《小團圓》

張愛玲著

皇冠出版社

2009年02月出版

 

 

 

 

當閉上眼睛,試著回想生命歷程,會發現記憶並非循著時光長河上溯,而是如黑暗中視網膜的光點,不斷閃爍漂移,觸發連結另一個記憶後,又憑空消失,生生滅滅……。

關於記憶的書寫,總是偏離西方寫實主義小說的線性敘事傳統。以張愛玲為例,她於四○年代的早期創作,以中、短篇小說和散文為主,雜揉寫實主義敘事的精準技巧、華美修辭和敏銳的個人觀察視角,成為戰時文壇的獨特風景。

錘鍊過往現新義

張愛玲自1952年離開中國後,輾轉流離海外,寫作風格也發生極大的變化。五、六○年代之交,她以英文書寫過往的回憶,著成《雷峰塔》(The Fall of the Pagoda)與《易經》(The Book of Change)兩本自傳體的長篇小說(《雷峰塔》實為《易經》一部分,因篇幅太長而獨立成書);七○年代又將之轉譯改寫為中文,命名為《小團圓》。其中《小團圓》於2009年出版,隔年英文版《雷峰塔》、《易經》和翻譯的中文版再與讀者見面。曲折的成書過程,恰與張愛玲追憶似水年華的迂迴纏繞相互呼應。

這三部自傳體小說,皆有片段取自張愛玲早年作品。學者王德威認為,這些曾敘述過的事件,再現時皆呈現不同變化,每次的變化即代表張愛玲對回憶的重新詮釋。在張愛玲反覆修改的寫作過程中,事件隨著生命體驗與創作態度的改變,不斷變形、延伸,最後衍生出新的意義。閱讀《雷峰塔》、《易經》與《小團圓》三書,可看出張愛玲在不同年齡階段,對個人和家國觀念的迭變,且透露出她獨特的人生哲學。

雷峰塔,倒了

其一的《雷峰塔》,是張愛玲從記憶肇始到被父親囚禁在家,之後出逃投奔母親的童年至青少女階段。張愛玲化身為主角沈琵琶,以孩童的眼光觀察周遭世界。

張愛玲出身自顯赫的家族,祖母為李鴻章長女,但到了張愛玲父輩,舊時榮光已然褪色。新時代來臨撼動了維繫舊時社會秩序的價值觀,如小說裡老媽子口中杭州的雷峰塔,傾倒後放出精怪,引起天下大亂。小說中的雷峰塔成為中國傳統倫理遭受西方現代化巨浪衝擊,傾頹毀壞的象徵。

而面對物質和精神雙重危機時,琵琶的父親與諸多親戚退守家中,以清靜明志為藉口,不事生產,耽溺抽鴉片、蓄妾等舊時代陋習。在此同時,琵琶的母親與姑姑卻在新思潮影響下,結伴出國留學。母親與姑姑自國外攜回的西方文明產物和進步思想,讓琵琶見識到新舊世界的強烈對比。父母離婚後,琵琶往來於父親與姑姑各自的家,對兩者的斷裂與糾葛感受益趨複雜。最後她選擇脫離父親家封閉守舊的生活,奔向新世界追尋自我。

日常片段見掙扎

《雷峰塔》英文的原文顧及英美讀者囿於文化障礙,因此有過多對中國文化的解釋,文句本身也稍嫌贅冗。

但以整體布局而言,張愛玲在處理新舊兩種勢力對琵琶的影響時,並未流於意識形態的發揮,而是以人類學田野調查的記錄手法,平實呈現在傳統與現代夾擊下人物的矛盾性格:琵琶的父親為了省錢,不讓兒子上學,只延請塾師教授古書,卻又喜愛雜誌汽車等西方產品;繼母少女時曾追求自由戀愛而自殺未遂,後來卻抽上鴉片,並成為囚禁琵琶的幫凶;西化的姑姑表面上不在乎世俗眼光,但為了戀人,終落入傳統男女關係犧牲自我的困境。所有人在新舊文化的傾軋下,各自摸索出應對的策略,而琵琶也從幼年的混沌自足,逐漸養成以懷疑和不確定的眼光,看待這個新舊雜陳割裂的時代。

《雷峰塔》雖然著眼於舊文化腐朽墮落的一面,卻不將情節簡化為新舊之間的對壘。張愛玲像一個拾穗者,逐一撿拾她所遭遇或聽聞的零碎片段,將矛盾與衝突回歸至對世界的認識。這種對現世的懷疑與思索,在《易經》中繼續發酵。

親情走向盡頭

接續《雷峰塔》,《易經》一開頭,琵琶投奔到母親與姑姑的家,準備出國留學,使她有機會近距離觀察疏遠的母親——楊露。

露水的意象暗示這位看似堅強自信的新女性,走出傳統家庭束縛後的搖擺不定。受到五四運動思潮的洗禮,為了追求愛情自由,張愛玲母親與憑媒妁之言結褵的丈夫離婚,長期周遊列國,周旋於各國情人間,爾後受制於經濟,不得不暫時與女兒同住。張愛玲以細緻而近乎殘酷的筆觸,刻畫母親如何把對青春和金錢的焦慮,轉化為對女兒苛刻的期望與責難,一點一點磨損了女兒的孺慕之情。

在《易經》裡,母親百般挑剔刁難琵琶,在賭桌上輕易輸光了琵琶珍而重之的獎學金,讓琵琶對母親徹底幻滅,發出這樣的喟嘆:「撐持了數千年。孝道拉扯住的一代又一代……每一代都對父母懷著一份宗教似的熱情,卻低估了自身的缺點對下一代的影響。」無論是依據傳統儒家半強迫式的孝道,或新時代資本主義投資與回饋的邏輯,連繫上下兩代的紐帶已然斷裂,琵琶與楊露的母女關係終於也像父女關係變異毀壞。

順勢隨命運流動

倫理關係劇變的背景,是襲捲整個世界的戰爭。歐戰爆發使琵琶必須放棄留學英國,改入香港大學;三年後又遇日軍入侵香港,被迫暫停學業。在這段時間,個人命運較之前更為飄搖難測,也更顯現出時代的巨大影響。《易經》的英文原名為The Book of Change,change有變動、變化之意。將自傳取名為「變易之書」,可見「變」是張愛玲對自己和這時代所下的註腳。

戰爭動搖了平時固著的階級與秩序,顯露出剝除現代文明後人性的另一面。宣揚慈善的基督徒關起門獨善其身,教授和學生貪婪地囤積盜賣物資,男女學生為禮節所拘束的性禁忌打破了……琵琶親睹戰爭時期文明的土崩瓦解,體悟生存於當下順勢應變的法則,靠著智謀成功買到船票,回到上海──她心中唯一的歸屬。

張愛玲回到上海後的際遇是讀者熟知的。在時代「惘惘的威脅」下,她於極短的時間創作出質量驚人作品,大放異彩。若將《易經》返回上海洋溢著希望的結尾,放在文本外的歷史脈絡,很容易讓人聯想到張的名作《傾城之戀》──香港的陷落反轉了女主角流蘇原有的劣勢,歷史的劇烈轉折成就了個人的微渺命運。回到上海後,張愛玲於戰爭倉促雜沓的節奏中發聲,在慷慨激昂的大歷史敘事下,另闢私我的書寫途徑,不能不歸功於她對時勢長期觀察後發展出的應「變」之道。

時移事變小團圓

英文版《易經》最終未能在美國出版。七○年代中葉,此時年過半百的張愛玲用中文寫成自傳《小團圓》,再一次化身為女主角九莉,回顧滿目瘡痍的青春。

《小團圓》的敘事時序相當奇特,一開始是九莉在港大(化名維大)大考前遭遇港戰爆發的清晨,由此引入九莉同學和母親姑姑等眾生相,到返回上海、寫作成名、經歷戀愛與情傷,其中並穿插了童年回憶、祖父母家族史,母親和姑姑的生命史,寫盡三十載青春。在《小團圓》的敘事框架中,事件不再是獨立存在的,而是由生活中零散情境的對比勾連成一段段線索,千里伏線,層層演進。雖然描述的事件多半雷同,由於創作理念和技巧的改變,《小團圓》較《雷峰塔》和《易經》更具張力。

如果說《易經》裡的少女琵琶是在窺見變動的契機後積極把握;《小團圓》裡的九莉則是在飽經風霜後,領悟長期更迭終將成為一種恆常。體認到這歷史的弔詭,張愛玲在重新整理記憶時,發掘出家族繁雜結構的新面貌:這些她所熟知的家族人物、親戚故舊,不僅是她藉以認識外在世界的渠道,也是造就她自我認同的一部分。這一點在《小團圓》關於愛情的主題上尤其明顯。

非一般愛情故事

張愛玲在和好友宋淇通信中討論《小團圓》時提到:「這是一個熱情故事。我想表達出愛情的萬轉千迴,完全幻滅了之後也還有點什麼東西在。」愛情的主題從小說伊始就存在。九莉的母親與姑姑追求愛情的過程負傷累累,面對占有傳統性別優勢的男性,女性投入愛情的代價異常高昂,一不小心即可能在情感的拉鋸中被剝奪自我。然而愛情滋養生命的魔力,使她們明知可能受傷,還是不得不愛。觀察其他女性婚姻與愛情的際遇,包括孀居中抑鬱而終的祖母、終身奉獻卻從未被愛過的表大媽、成功獵取新男人與新的經濟支援的項八小姐……,九莉等於在尚未戀愛之前,就已經一再演練愛情的善變樣貌。

對一直渴望被愛的九莉而言,邵之雍(一般咸認為胡蘭成)是唯一直接對她表示欣賞與愛意的人。儘管之雍任職於汪偽政府,聲名狼藉,男女關係複雜,九莉仍不顧一切投身愛情。

但戀情發展下去,之雍逐漸暴露出風度作態下極端自私的個性,兩人的愛情扭曲為精神和肉體上施虐與受虐的依存。九莉終於明白她和之雍的關係不是她所嚮往的「跟誰都不一樣」的愛情,反倒淪為傳統戲曲中落魄男子等待發達後,迎娶分潤過感情的女子,諸美和樂「大團圓」的老套劇情。書名《小團圓》便有張愛玲自嘲重蹈前人覆轍,落入兩性關係陳腐窠臼之意。愛情的幻滅,對應命運的重覆,成為巨大的反諷。

償還與完成

小說最後,九莉以償還金錢的方式,結束與母親、之雍的關係。此處償還作為一種割裂,不只是切割與兩人的關係,也意味著九莉捨棄了血緣、國族(因與邵之雍交往,九莉被親友視為漢奸)的羈絆,象徵她在中國三十年歲月的終止。曾在九莉生命中扮演重要角色的人物,如父親、弟弟、舅舅,各自結局底定,給《小團圓》書名增添了另一層深切意味,張愛玲離開中國前對這些人物的最後一瞥,定格了她往後創作的永恆泉源。

以書寫作為療癒

生前張愛玲曾出版《對照記──看老相簿》,以短文配合舊照片,作為晚年小傳。回過頭再閱讀《雷峰塔》、《易經》、《小團圓》,我們可以看出虛構與真實之間若即若離的繾綣。在歷經近半生的動盪後,張愛玲選擇隱居美國,孜孜矻矻於書寫,寫作成為過往時光唯一的延續,無論能否出版,唯有繼續生存,繼續書寫,才能治癒生命的創傷。正如她在《易經》所言:「陰陽不歇的衝突中,老子顯然相信陰是女性,多數時候弱能勝強……。」背離二十世紀中國新文學主流的國族主義,張愛玲發揮陰性柔韌綿長的力量,以記憶連繫斷裂的時間與空間,不斷向內探索自傳書寫的可能性,逐步逼近她畢生思索的哲學核心。

王德威認為,張愛玲在〈國語本《海上花》譯後記〉寫下「張愛玲五詳紅樓夢,看官們三棄海上花」,似乎有意以《海上花》不被讀者接受的坎坷命運,比擬自身逆反潮流的孤寂。然而,當年為出版社所棄的《雷峰塔》、《易經》、《小團圓》,經過三、四十年的潛伏,終於返魂來尋找讀者。在充盈著末日恐慌的二十一世紀初,千里迢迢,來得正好。

 

參考書目

David Der-wei Wang, “The Fall of the Pagoda : Introduction”, The Fall of the Pagoda (Hong Kong University Press, 2010)

David Der-wei Wang, “The Book of Change: Introduction”, The Book of Change (Hong Kong University Press, 2010)

作者簡介

廖梅璇

嘉義人,在台北求學覓食十餘年,善於在失眠的夜傾聽秒針,現為文字工作者。部落格「酸了就要倒吊」 http://blog.roodo.com/zoya

 

Published in 書評
Monday, 12 December 2011 00:00

A Book Written for the Present

The Book of Revelation is the last one of the New Testament. Its style, its images and its dramatic aspect cannot but astonish its readers. Yet, it remains one of the most widely read of the Bible, especially in times of crisis.

It is difficult to understand its style and meaning if one does not know that it belongs to a literary genre: the “apocalyptic genre”, which developed in the Jewish world around two centuries before the birth of Jesus and will still last for one more century after his death.

Writers of “apocalyptic books” intend to reveal to their readers the project of God: the coming of His Day, when His Kingdom will be definitely established on earth. They first look at the past of Israel, reflect with their readers on the significance of the most important events, and draw a line of interpretation from this rereading of the past: God is faithful, He is working among His people today as He was doing yesterday, and as He will continue to do. Thus, understanding how God is working among us nowadays helps us to understand in which ways His coming is about to happen. Apocalyptic writers do not “see” specific events, they rather sketch the way God is working and will continue to work in human history. However, they need to do this with images and symbols. The reader needs to be sensitive to the literary code used by them. “White” is generally linked to victory and innocence; “Red’ to murder and blood; “seven” expresses perfection, and “six” imperfection; “three and half” refers to suffering and times of trial; “four” symbolizes the created world; “horn” is a symbol of power, and “white hair” of eternity rather than of old age…

John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, may be also the writer of the Fourth Gospel, or he is, more probably, one of his disciples. Traditionally, the writing of the Book is thought to have taken place around the years 90-96. Its redactor will make use of the images and symbols that we just mentioned For someone with a good knowledge of the Biblical text, most of the images being used are easy to decrypt: the completion of the victory of Christ will be evoked through the images of seven seals, seven trumpets, or seven cups… The tone of John’s Apocalypse is actually much more optimistic than the one of the former Jewish Apocalypses: Evil has already been unleashed when Jesus was crucified, but final victory is already ensured in his resurrection. Martyrs are associated to his victory. The message of the Apocalypse to his reader is quite straightforward: through our life and deeds, what Jesus has already accomplished will become everyday truer, more “real.” We can make it actually “happen”, we can make the salvation brought by Christ be known and experienced everywhere.  We are called to die to a certain way of conceiving our existence so as to live of the very life of Christ. This is painful, but the form of death we accept brings life to us and to the others. This is alike the suffering of the woman who is giving birth – an image common to the Book of Revelation and to the Fourth Gospel. This stress on the decisions to be taken by the faithful throughout his life gives a specific tone to the Book of Apocalypse: John does not describe the inexorable execution of a plan decided by God, he rather describes the path that men undertake with a God who walks with them, speaks to them and waits for their answer.

Whatever the multiplicity of images and tales he makes use of, John does not try to describe historical events to come, but rather to discover the meaning of the events that each generation of Christians is led to confront. Many descriptions of the Book of Revelation that seem to be projected into the future actually narrate events that have taken place during the life spam of the author – the persecution of Nero for instance. But they are narrated in such a way so as to receive a universal meaning. More generally, the Book of Revelation appears to be a global rereading of the Old Testament as it tries to interpret the two major events that define nascent Christianity: the break between Christian communities and the Jewish world; and the persecution it must almost immediately suffer from the totalitarian Roman empire.

Another “key of understanding” for entering into the text of the Book of Revelation is to note that it sounds very much like a “liturgy”: there are many canticles and songs, descriptions of celebrations taking place in Heavens, and allusions to baptism and Eucharist. Somehow, the whole human history is seen as a liturgy through which God is praised and glorified in the life and death of His witnesses.

Finally, the Book of Revelation celebrates the mystery of a God who comes towards us and who lives with us: Jesus is the center of history. The Verb has been made flesh, but his humaneness is expressed by a paradox Jesus is both the Lamb, whose blood reconciles God and humankind –as it was already announced in the Book of Exodus -, and the Shepherd, who cares for his people with love. He is the first and the last, the one who takes the humblest place and the greatest accomplishment of humankind. Enlivened by symbols and paradoxes that attempt to express something of an ineffable mystery, the Book of Revelation opens our eyes to a renewed vision of the Present – and calls us to fully and freely engage our whole being into the times that are ours.

Drawing by Bendu

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