Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Wednesday, 02 October 2013
Thursday, 03 October 2013 00:00

十平米的家 ─ 在城市邊緣長大

 

在中國,流動人口是灰色的。
當城市一圈圈向外擴張、一片片自體更新,每一次拆遷都伴隨大量租戶流徙。
從一個角落,到另一個角落,他們其實一直努力生存,不曾遠離。
 

撰文、攝影|林佳禾

Thursday, 03 October 2013 00:00

聽!南風中有人民與土地的哀吟

《南風》

鐘聖雄、許震唐

衛城出版社

2013年7月

圖片提供|衛城出版社

80年代大鳴大放的社會紀實攝影風潮早已消退,但2013年7月出版的《南風》,仍讓許多人回想起,曾經以影像及深入的田野觀察,喚起人們關心台灣土地與社會弱勢的《人間》雜誌。本期《人籟》邀請兩位作者:一直關注台灣土地及社會運動的賴和基金會執行長周馥儀,與長期從事影像實務及教學工作的鍾宜杰,分別由社會運動及探索紀實攝影等不同角度評析《南風》。期盼讀者與我們共同思索追求經濟發展所需付出的代價,及影像做為社會運動的工具,面臨的挑戰與可能性。 

 

〈以誠實,以紀實〉

撰文|鍾宜杰

多年前我做了一個小研究,主要分析探討的是台灣自二戰以後的新聞與紀實攝影師,他們在什麼樣的社會背景與政經條件下,形塑出攝影的習癖(habitus)與品味。當時我有幾個疑問,至今尚未解答,其一是:在什麼樣的意識形態與社會條件下,讓紀實攝影在台灣不再有影響力、也不再有人投入?其二是:攝影對21世紀的年輕世代而言,是什麼工具?

 

曾經消失的紀實攝影

收到《南風》這本攝影集時,彷彿時空錯亂,難以置信這時代竟然還有人願意用這麼不討好的方式進行田野調查,並做成影像報告書。80年代末之後,那群拿著攝影機、照相機在街頭爭取民主與人權的鬥士們就失去了戰場,逐漸轉為拍攝肖像,追尋歷史記憶的殘存影像。從那時候開始,我以為紀實攝影在台灣應該要正式告終了。然而,就像登山客在中央山脈意外看見雲豹或黑熊一樣,原來在商業市場急速擴張、人文思想受到高度商業化與擠壓的環境下,還有鐘聖雄與許震唐這兩位倖免者。

我常在課堂上質問學生,相較於80年代,難道90年代以後的台灣社會沒有壓迫了?難道大家買得起「哀鳳」以後,生活就飽足無虞了?難道知識分子可以透過網路扮起酸民與偵探,滿足於搜索爆料之後,正義就被實現了?所以,不再有人進入田野,不再有人探究問題真相了?這學期,這本攝影集可以做為我自我反駁的證據,如同登山客證明了雲豹還在一般(但這不是真的)。

1970年代開始,紀實攝影就不斷地被質疑與挑戰,其中包含所謂的「人道主義」是從誰的立場出發、紀實攝影師一定是誠實的嗎?紀實攝影追求的究竟是真實(reality)?還是事實(fact)?或者有更高的真理信仰(truth)?這些問題又存在著主、客觀的爭議,以及被拍攝的人是不是影像的受剝削者?此外,紀實攝影作品往往很容易成為政治工具,造成拍攝者始料未及的效應,有時候是攝影師可預期的後果、有時候則超出預期。這些政治效應,對執著於站在相機背後的人而言,往往是極為沉重且無法回應的結果。例如,台灣許多紀實攝影工作者被冠上政黨色彩的大帽,這些紀實攝影師向來不擅辭令,也不願回應;又因為政治逐漸民主化以及媒體商業化,導致這些紀實攝影師逐漸從媒體退場,拍攝的題材也轉為庶民肖像或藝術創作。

84b

(攝影/鐘聖雄)

最樸實的陳述,最真誠的控訴

不過,《南風》這本影像調查報告,與過去的紀實攝影集有很大的差異。一如前述,攝影的功能不再是「有圖有真相」,照片,代表的是某種特定的視野與立場;為了讓這個立場更具說服力,鐘聖雄與許震唐還提出了歷年的環境與公衛監測數據做為佐證。他們不再只是訴諸於影像所激起的情感,而是添加了更多理性元素,讓讀者在瀏覽影像之後,能夠聚焦於影像背後的控訴,而不是沉溺於影像本身的激情。學者郭力昕曾經批評,巴西攝影家薩爾加多(Sebastiao Salgado)的照片少了一點誠實,那「不誠實」就是不願承認自己從勞工身上取材做藝術,並且不敢直接觸碰勞工最深處的問題。郭力昕直言,那是假左派。郭力昕的質問,是所有紀實攝影者都應持存的警覺,而且「類薩爾加多」的偽善攝影師還在。

《南風》這本影像調查報告,正好沒有這個問題。如果要用所謂「專業」的眼光,或是服膺於西方那套視覺觀點的標準來檢視這本書,也許挑不出幾張所謂的「好照片」,偶爾,還會出現一兩張與尤金‧史密斯(William Eugene Smith)等西方攝影師作品雷同的畫面構圖。但也正因為這些作品的樸實,讓我們看到了兩位作者對家鄉真誠的情感,順著郭力昕的說法,那就是誠實。不僅對作品以及讀者誠實,也對自己誠實。換言之,他們不是靠純熟的拍攝技術與強烈的影像張力來吸引讀者,那應該也不是他們的企圖;反之,他們是用樸實的陳述句與實證態度進行控訴。他們掙脫了紀實攝影的歷史包袱,誠懇地向台灣人民陳述故鄉土地與村民所受的委屈。面對這樣誠實且忠於土地的作品,我寧可捨棄吹捧褒揚的辭藻,以同樣誠實的態度回應它。

 

 

Published in 書評
Wednesday, 02 October 2013 16:51

The Disturbing Worlds of Kaya Hanasaki

Kaya Hanasaki is a Japanese artist who mainly works in the performing arts. Her artwork takes a critical view of social, political and cultural issues. She embarked upon her carreer about 7 years ago and her works generally consist of a combination of video art and photography.

Wednesday, 02 October 2013 16:10

When Dreams Don't Pan Out


Translated from the original Chinese by Conor Stuart, photo by Cerise Phiv.

Dreams have the dual meaning of hope and desperation: they can represent longing for the future, or they can be an unrealistic fantasy.

"中國夢" (Chinese Dream) . In the middle of August this year, I embarked on my first steps onto Chinese soil. From when I entered the airport, these three characters followed me on my trip. In the papers, in the media, even slogans written on walls at the side of the road, these three characters appeared at every turn. According to the Chinese government, the meaning of this phrase is 'Realize a rich and powerful nation, to reinvigorate the Chinese nation and to make the people happy'. On the surface, this dream not only looks to have a very solid definition, but it seems to have the power to be passed down from the top to the bottom rungs of society.

When conjuring up the Chinese Dream, it's very hard not to associate it with the American Dream, which took its origins in the nineteenth century, which consists of the idea that if you only work hard, you will not lack for opportunities and was pursued and yearned for by people the world over. And now, a rising superpower is staking a new claim in an attempt, it goes without saying, to replace it. Only, amidst this atmosphere of prosperity for all, I can't help but feel a little troubled: Don't dreams represent people at their most unconstrained? People under the same roof often have different dreams from one another, so how could more than a billion people all have the same dream?

By chance, it was at the end of August when I was jettisoned into this dream. Fifty years before, on 28th August, the American civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King made his famous speech which featured the famous line "I have a dream", which is probably one of the most widely known dreams in the world. The dream Dr. King describes is one in which "the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood [...] that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character." So, the American Dream actually turns out not to be realizable with just hard work, certain people are already pre-excluded from it. Half a century has since passed, and even though the US has already elected its first black president, I'm not naive enough to think that Dr King's dream has been realized. One need only open one's eyes to see the multitude of dividing lines that exist in the world today, and what keeps us apart is not only race, but also gender, sexuality, class and even religion...

The Chinese Dream, the American Dream and Dr. King's dream remind me of the era of illusion in Taiwan spurred by the lines "Having a dream is wonderful, hope is never far behind" (有夢最美,希望相隨, you meng zui mei, xiwang xiangsui). These lines, a slogan from an election campaign (Chen Shuibian's election campaign), used the simplest of words to inspire hope in countless people, as if just believing in these words, one could emerge from the darkest of times. However, the reality of the situation is that dreams can't dispel the differences between people and they give us a clear direction, as for Taiwan this turned out to be an even more ambiguous and tumultuous era than what had gone before.

Perhaps, as we sing the virtues of dreams, we often forget that dreams have the dual meaning of hope and desperation: they can represent a longing for the future, if you naively believe that where there's a will, there's a way", allowing you to release your unlimited potential. Or, on the other hand dreams can be an unrealistic fantasy because what you yearn for is so distant from reality, so, in the end, it can only ever be a dream. Of course, if we get to the core of the issue, as the Diamond sutra says, everything in this world is simply a "phantasm". 

Wednesday, 02 October 2013 09:24

5 different Chinese input methods


Here we have a short guide to five different Chinese input methods, including pinyin, zhuyin, cangjie, sucheng and boshiamy, all of which can help your Chinese in different ways, some can improve your tones and some are based on the shape of the different characters. We apologize for the bad video quality - hopefully we can improve it soon.

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