Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Saturday, 07 April 2007
Sunday, 08 April 2007 07:25

攀枝花尾矿坝

攀枝花市位于四川省西南部金沙江与雅砻江的汇合处,1965年以前,这里还是一片不毛之地。经过40多年的建设,攀枝花如今人口已超过百万,城镇化率达56.6%,GDP接近3000美元,人均财政收入排在四川省首位。成为中国西部重要的工业重镇、川滇地区的交通枢纽和商贸物资集散中心,也是世界三大产钒基地之一。攀枝花市蕴藏着丰富的资源,是中国钢铁、能源、钒钛基地,因此被誉为“中国西部工业明珠”。
作为一座以钢铁冶炼、煤炭开采、能源开发、钒钛加工为一体的资源开发型城市,攀枝花在开发建设初期,贯彻了“争时间、抢速度”和“先生产、后生活”的方针,这种拼资源、拼消耗、拼环境的粗放发展生产模式,偏重于资源开发而忽略环境保护。
伴随着经济指标快速增长的是河流与大气的污染,以及城市生活质量的日益恶化。
炼焦废水、洗煤、选矿废水等大量的工业污水及城市生活污水未经无害化处理直接排入长江。每年的排放量在6000万吨以上。
国家环保总局公布2004年度环境质量公报中,攀枝花入围全国空气污染最严重的10个城市。
攀枝花的兰尖、朱家包包两座铁矿,其钒钛磁铁矿储量居全国第一,为全国露天开采规模最大的矿区。露天开采后的矿石,被运送到选矿厂加工滋选。
作为国内最大选矿厂之一的攀钢选矿厂,选矿生产中面临的最大问题就是尾矿的处理问题。尾矿是选矿厂在当时条件下不宜再分选的固体废料,磨细的尾矿,刮风扬尘,会污染空气;排入沟谷低地,会溢流渗漏,污染土地,成为灾害隐患;直接排入金沙江(中国最大河流长江的上游),会淤塞河道,不仅流失大量铁、钒、钛、钴、镍等稀有金属,造成资源浪费,而且给长江带来严重污染!!!为此,攀枝花尾矿过江入坝工程被列为国家第一批限期治理的重点环保项目之一。
选矿厂解决这个问题的办法,就是将选矿厂排出的这些含有稀有金属的尾矿水经浓缩池浓缩加压后用管道经密地大桥运送过江,送入位于江南阿署达村的尾矿坝储存。让尾矿慢慢沉积下来待用,避免尾矿入江造成污染。
尾矿坝是由碎石碾压而成的坝体,类似于水库,整个库区要求达到极高的放渗等级。在矿山环境的保护和治理中起到很大的作用,它主要应用于堆放和处理矿山生产所带来的废渣、废水等污染物质。
攀枝花尾矿坝三面环山,一面筑坝,1966年完成设计,1970年建成投产,该坝容量为1.86亿m3,有效坝容1.6亿m3,主坝高35.5m,设计最终坝高210m。是中国上游法堆坝中坝高最高,库容最大的尾矿坝。
如今,攀枝花建设已经有40多年了,存放在阿署达的尾矿,到现在也有将近40年的历史了,而且日积月累,已经形成了一个方圆大约1平方公里面积的尾矿坝,成为国内目前最大的尾矿坝之一。
攀枝花尾矿坝,降低了尾矿的污染,对防止江河污染,改善生态环境,具有巨大的经济、社会、环境效益。
矿产资源的总量有限和不可再生,决定了资源型城市经济的脆弱性和不可持续性,随着基础工业体制改革的深入和老矿山资源日少,矿山转产形式逼人,尾矿利用成为矿业关注新热点,尾矿的治理和利用迫在眉睫!
人类进入21世纪,世界正发生复杂而深刻的变化。现在正处于从传统增长到可持续发展的转变时期,可持续发展的核心是经济发展与保护资源、保护生态环境的协调一致,是为了让子孙后代能够享有充分的资源和良好的自然环境。是以生态平衡、自然保护、资源环境的永续利用等作为基本内容。
开展广泛国际合作,加强可持续发展中的科技合作,提高尾矿整体利用技术,将资源开发与城市规划,环境保护与城市发展,人居生活环境与城市负载力相结合,任重而道远。

附加的多媒体:
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An estimated 150-200 million Chinese rural workers are currently living and working in cities. Their number has risen rapidly from just two million in the 1980s and is expected to grow even further, with some estimating 300 million by 2015. The household registration system requires them to register with local authorities as temporary residents. They face discrimination in housing, education, healthcare and employment on the basis of their temporary status, though several cities are presently working towards improving their condition. The ones who are unable to complete the process are left with no legal status, making them vulnerable to further exploitation by police, landlords, local residents and employers. According to an International Labor Organization report, a random check on 134 companies by the Labor Department of Suizhou City in Hubei revealed that not a single one had issued any labor contracts.

China’s urban migrants sent home the equivalent of almost 30 billion US$ in 2005. Employers often take advantage of internal migrants’ vulnerable status by withholding billions of yuan in unpaid wages. The Ministry of Construction announced that the total value of defaulted construction fees and non-payment of wages reached 186 billion yuan (US$22.5 billion) at the end of 2003. The crisis of migrants’ unpaid wages has been recognized by central level officials, who have repeatedly urged local governments to ensure that internal migrant workers are paid on time.

School and healthcare fees have a disproportionate impact on migrant workers, whose incomes are on average lower than other urban residents. For migrant families, various additional fees make attendance at state schools prohibitive. In Chengdu the temporary additional schooling fee was in the range of 400 yuan (US$48) per semester for primary school and 1,000 yuan (US$120) per semester for secondary school in 2002. And most migrants in China’s cities live without health insurance, rarely visit a doctor, and only go to the hospital in the most extreme cases of illness or injury. “The total insurance rate of rural migrants is universally very low though insurance on labor injures are considerable. Total rate of pension insurance only is 15%, and average rate of medical insurance is about 10%, but most rural migrants can not be covered of unemployment insurance and birth insurance provides by government.”

The problems met by migrant workers also reflect the tensions on China’s labor market, with a rise in unemployment and menial employment. “The “new urban poverty” is in large measure due to a change in the urban economic environment. The state sector and urban collective enterprises that have traditionally been the sources of employment for the urban labor force have been losing jobs, a trend that is expected to continue apace for some years. The non-state sector has grown but not rapidly enough to absorb both surplus rural labor and redundant urban labor. ”

In 2006, China needed to create 25 million jobs in the cities and had created only 9 million. Besides, menial employment or self-employment now constitute around half of all urban jobs. According to the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, China’s labor supply is expected to top 830 million by 2010. In urban areas, an additional 50 million city residents will join the labor force by 2010, but only 40 million jobs will be created during this period. Millions of other jobs will also have to be created to accommodate an additional 45 million rural migrant workers who have been encouraged to leave rural areas to reduce the labor surplus in the countryside.
According to State statistics, the current number of migrant workers is estimated at 150 million, or 11.5 per cent of the population, nearly double that of 10 years ago

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Saturday, 07 April 2007 08:43

The Art of Politics

Politics has a bad name.

To some people who are not politicians politics is the scheming of a few to impose their policies on the many.

To those who don’t like what the government is doing, politics is the reason why things are going bad.

To others politics is all the underhanded ways and false promises politicians make in order to win votes.


But at the same time:

it is because of politics that bad politicians do not always prevail;

it is through political interacting and maneuvering that good policies eventually replace bad ones.

Without politics there would never be a balance of power, only the chaos of anarchy.


Politics is generally associated with government.

It the process through which those who govern make decisions.

Usually politics is practiced through the agency of people with similar ideas who band together in so-called political factions or parties.

Politics, however, is not exclusively confined to governments. There is politics wherever policies have to be decided by persons. There is office politics, church politics, school politics, etc.

Whenever people interact to gain an advantage or power so their decisions will be the ones followed, there is politics.

Politics is conversation, debate and manipulation in order to establish and maintain authority and power.


One of the most important things to remember about politics is that not everyone gets his or her own way.

The only way that there can be united purposeful and practical action is for everyone to agree on one united plan of action.

In politics not everyone gets what he or she wants.


The art of politics is

knowing progress only comes when everyone pulls together;
knowing how to bring those with different ideas to accept yours; knowing when to set aside your ideas to yield to those of others;
and knowing how to cooperate for a common purpose.


There can only be politics when men and women are free,

free to monitor and question,
free to disagree,
free to speak out and discuss and propose new ideas,
free to change direction,
and willing to accept and follow consensus.


Not everyone is a politician,

but everyone, no matter what his or her profession or status in life, needs to know how to interact with others politically.


The Greek philosopher Aristotle said that man is a political animal.

This means that all men and women by nature are continually engaged in interaction with others through the exchange of ideas and debate, so that the right decisions can be made about how to live and work together.


This means that every individual has a responsibility to be political.

If I am not, if I simply go my own way letting others do whatever they want, then I am neglecting my obligation to society.

We need to make our voices heard so that everyone gets a share of the common and not just those selfish few who snatch power from those too weak or too unconcerned to stop them.


As I political animal, I should:

know what is going on,
know what is right and wrong,
stand up for what is right and wrong,
and throw in my support for those who are actively engaged in governing.


There are lessons hidden here.

There is a time for pulling for your ideals
and a time for pushing for those of others.

When you know you are right
you have to fight for your rights.

Sometimes the right thing
is to yield to the rights of others.

Politics is art of regulating
the use of power
for the greater good of all.

Good politics
puts public benefits
ahead of personal advantage.

Bad politics
puts selfish interests
ahead of public needs.

Politics without justice
is totalitarian selfishness
and the abuse of power.

Politics without charity
is inhumane cruelty
and the abuse of power.

Politics without ethics
is immoral
and the abuse of power.

Politicians without political support
have no power.

Citizens who condemn politics
are condemning themselves
if they do nothing.

(Picture by Liang Zhun)

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