Erenlai - A Spiritual Treasure Map 給心靈的藏寶圖
A Spiritual Treasure Map 給心靈的藏寶圖

A Spiritual Treasure Map 給心靈的藏寶圖

 

The rich wisdom found in Chinese religious and spiritual traditions is not just a treasure of the past. Let us re-discover and illuminate what China has to offer to the global spiritual quest of the modern world.

從中國到世界的天涯海角都有古老的哲思,值得活在現代社會的我們重新去探索。這些寶藏是靈魂的食糧,也是生命最底層的渴望。在生而為人的這條路上,你找過到那張給心靈的藏寶圖嗎?

 

 

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

我無法想像老年

意識到歲月無情流轉,也許每個人都曾試圖想像自己年老的模樣。
未來的歲月充滿變數,
所謂想像,有時終究僅是想像…

老實說,我很難想像自己到了老年會是甚麼樣子。其實直到三十多歲,我還以為「上年紀」,就是有一天要做中年女人的意思。

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

夜雪使我清醒

冬天的初雪不断重来,没日没夜地下著,使时间归零。

笨笃 撰文

夜色升起,明火同暗火升起,使我目盲,寻找希望的底色,却没有任何东西留著白天的幽深:颤抖的呼唤,隐约传来的歌曲,门口以及窗口粉色、灰色、减了一分黑的边框…如果您愿意的话,爱上这样的等待吧!
我的大窗,窗口赤裸,我看见夜的亮饰。耀目的冬天为夜的小火添加柴木,我的视野一片乾涸。我小心翼翼地转过眼。谈论无形的世界。或者,谈些肉眼无法见到的事物。至少,谈我们此刻看不到的。听说大海近在咫尺,我从未发现这只是一种气味。哀悼海,哀悼礼仪,我是否要声嘶力竭?
钢和海湾发出同样的弧光,同是蓝光,不同属性的使者。两者的双曲线达到顶点时,本源增强著心志。我接受了预兆,我是被画出的空间,或说是念头。反覆的变奏凝聚物质,或说是想法,直到终点。至少这是钢和海湾的闪烁长光确实诉说著的。
雪覆盖我全身,清柔而寒冷。同样凛冽而白色的天空在我上方。地平线荒芜一片,散文诗低语起来,难以停息,沟壑满溢。雪面下的漩涡和记忆重新搅动。银河系的腹心被吸卷抽乾。
斜坡和地洞倾斜,垂直度被啃蚀,毫不宽容地曲身。生硬的黑,乌鸦贪婪地张口…雪总是下个不停。雪在夜间回归,高高低低停息在我纯净的曲线上。雪使我窒息,燃烧著我。冬天的初雪不断重来,没日没夜地下著,使时间归零,使时钟的指针倒转。夜雪使我清醒。

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/benoit_snow.jpg{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

夜雪使我清醒

冬天的初雪不斷重來,沒日沒夜地下著,使時間歸零。

笨篤 撰文

夜色升起,明火同暗火升起,使我目盲,尋找希望的底色,卻沒有任何東西留著白天的幽深:顫抖的呼喚,隱約傳來的歌曲,門口以及窗口粉色、灰色、減了一分黑的邊框…如果您願意的話,愛上這樣的等待吧!
我的大窗,窗口赤裸,我看見夜的亮飾。耀目的冬天為夜的小火添加柴木,我的視野一片乾涸。我小心翼翼地轉過眼。談論無形的世界。或者,談些肉眼無法見到的事物。至少,談我們此刻看不到的。聽說大海近在咫尺,我從未發現這只是一種氣味。哀悼海,哀悼禮儀,我是否要聲嘶力竭?
鋼和海灣發出同樣的弧光,同是藍光,不同屬性的使者。兩者的雙曲線達到頂點時,本源增強著心志。我接受了預兆,我是被畫出的空間,或說是念頭。反覆的變奏凝聚物質,或說是想法,直到終點。至少這是鋼和海灣的閃爍長光確實訴說著的。
雪覆蓋我全身,清柔而寒冷。同樣凜冽而白色的天空在我上方。地平線荒蕪一片,散文詩低語起來,難以停息,溝壑滿溢。雪面下的漩渦和記憶重新攪動。銀河系的腹心被吸捲抽乾。
斜坡和地洞傾斜,垂直度被啃蝕,毫不寬容地曲身。生硬的黑,烏鴉貪婪地張口…雪總是下個不停。雪在夜間回歸,高高低低停息在我純淨的曲線上。雪使我窒息,燃燒著我。冬天的初雪不斷重來,沒日沒夜地下著,使時間歸零,使時鐘的指針倒轉。夜雪使我清醒。



Wednesday, 26 November 2008

Tafalong, past and present

Tafalong is a traditional Amis village located nearby the township of Fata’an (Guangfu), in Hualien county – a township with which it entertains an healthy, deep-rooted rivalry... Working the land remains the main activity: cultures of betel nut, rice, sweet potato fruits and vegetables shape the surrounding landscape. Yield is rather good, and the first impression of the outsider entering the area is certainly one of a hard-working, moderately affluent population. Older people are slowly walking along the streets, speaking mainly Amis among themselves, while the wandering groups of schoolchildren speak only Chinese and seem to be spoken to solely in that language.

Tafalong keeps alive songs and legends describing the creation of the world and evoking spirits, genealogies and rituals. As in other Amis areas, the Yearly Offering ("Ilisin" – often translated in English as the Harvest Festival), taking place sometime in August, remains the biggest event of the year. In Fata’an and, to a lesser extent in Tafalong proper, the Offering now takes place on a large scale and has become a much-publicized touristic event. Its State-sponsored promotion may have gone along the loss of meaning that the one who watches it might experience – still, its long preparation unites the whole community, and everybody seems to get great fun out of it. In Sado, the very small size of a closely-knit community obviously concurs to better preserve the spirit and the ritualistic undertones traditionally attached to the festival: in this particular hamlet, during the three days event, men are chastised by the village chief if they did not meaningfully participate in community life during the year (the punishment consists in the drinking of a large bowl of rice wine), praised if they did so (such men are by far in the minority…). Young men’s initiation is still a commonly observed feature, though the way it is followed and performed varies from place to place.

In the still recent past, several shamans (or, more frequently, she-shamans.) were living in Tafalong. There is still one of them remaining in Sado, who also plays the role of a medium catering for the needs of Han people through Taoist rituals. Underlying shamanist creeds and practices are certainly present, but they are largely covered and transformed by Christian beliefs. The Catholic community is the most numerous and active, while two Protestant churches also enjoy a significant following. The faith brought from afar has been acculturated through songs, community bonding (there is a very active Catholic old women association) and well attended Sunday services celebrated at the same time in Amis and Chinese. Parish retreats and study sessions are an important part of village life. Japanese priests preaching to the elderly in the language they have learnt during their youth come to Tafalong once every year.

The term "kawas" refers at the same time to the Christian God and to the gods of the Amis tradition. Therefore, the shaman is usually called "Sikawasay", meaning the One who possesses a god. Spirits, demons and guardian angels are regularly invoked during all rituals. The invocation to the Ancestors is a basic part of traditional Amis rituals, and it is common to see Amis people offering some alcohol to the pictures of latter generation ancestors adorning the walls of their house, muttering to them a rapid prayer if they fear that trouble is brewing or that they have somehow behaved improperly. At the same time, the stress on ancestors and on their watchful presence is assimilated into Christianity without too much ado, especially by the Catholics, more accommodating in that respect than their protestant brethren.

Photo: B.V.

Wednesday, 26 November 2008

第五天

从前从前有一只那瓜,从山那边远方的村子太巴塱来到了台北湖,在那个湖盆地一所叫做「呆」的大学里念书,学习法律。那瓜很喜欢这些法学理论,直到有一天,有一个名为「傅柯」的法国死人一脚踹死了那瓜的天真想像…

后来那瓜去了米国,到了「把茶叶倒进港」的一所虚伪大学,开始学习科学史。虚伪大学号称「米国总统的摇篮」,对于小村那瓜来说真是太新英格兰的文明了,因此那瓜虽然喜欢科学史,却很讨厌这学校盛产的虚伪。

后来那瓜回到小岛,又转了一个方向,开始从事翻译工作和原住民研究,透过驻地的田野调查深入阿里山邹族的文化。这个人口很少的山民族和那瓜所属的阿美族很不一样,让那瓜兴起了返乡研究的念头,后来也果真获得一项资助而展开返家之旅。

此外关于那瓜还有什么可说的呢?

那瓜吃草和鱼。

那瓜是业馀的画者。

那瓜虽然来自谷地的村落,最爱看的还是那彷佛无边无际的太平洋。

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/Nakao_pinganganan.jpg{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 26 November 2008

第五天

从前从前有一只那瓜,从山那边远方的村子太巴塱来到了台北湖,在那个湖盆地一所叫做「呆」的大学里念书,学习法律。那瓜很喜欢这些法学理论,直到有一天,有一个名为「傅柯」的法国死人一脚踹死了那瓜的天真想像…

后来那瓜去了米国,到了「把茶叶倒进港」的一所虚伪大学,开始学习科学史。虚伪大学号称「米国总统的摇篮」,对于小村那瓜来说真是太新英格兰的文明了,因此那瓜虽然喜欢科学史,却很讨厌这学校盛产的虚伪。

后来那瓜回到小岛,又转了一个方向,开始从事翻译工作和原住民研究,透过驻地的田野调查深入阿里山邹族的文化。这个人口很少的山民族和那瓜所属的阿美族很不一样,让那瓜兴起了返乡研究的念头,后来也果真获得一项资助而展开返家之旅。

此外关于那瓜还有什么可说的呢?

那瓜吃草和鱼。

那瓜是业馀的画者。

那瓜虽然来自谷地的村落,最爱看的还是那彷佛无边无际的太平洋。

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/Nakao_pinganganan.jpg{/rokbox}

Tuesday, 25 November 2008

海神做拿去

There is a growing number of movies and TV episodes that tell of conflicts between human intelligence and the artificial intelligence designed by humans for the control of human-like robots, machines that simulate human activity. A scenario envisioned by many scientists is to develop and manufacture humanoid robots that look and act, even feel and think as humans do. These humanoids would then be available to perform human tasks freeing humans for leisure activities. So long as there are no problems in the programs that control the robots, everything goes well. But suppose that some bad humans program the robots to attack and enslave the rest of mankind so they become the masters of the world maintaining complete control over the robots.

Another deviation depicted in stories is that the digital intelligence planted in robots develops into an independent intelligence no longer under human control and the robots then eliminate the humans to take over the world for themselves. Of course, in all the stories in the end some humans manage to instill a virus into the robot’s cyber system or come up with some bright idea that enables them to overcome the robots and restore the human domination.

In any case the age of cybernetics is here to stay and more and more sophisticated robots are being developed. I don’t understand the digital electronic program control systems or the complicated mechanical mechanisms that respond so accurately to computer control, but it fills me with awe.

Take for instance, the action of a human dashing at top speed through a heavily wooded forest with no path or level ground. It requires a keen eye to anticipate obstacles, an intelligence to transform what is seen into decisions about where to place the feet and directions to the muscles and nerves that will control the motion of the limbs and maintain bodily balance as I dash on without slowing down or injury. A human’s neurological, muscular and skeletal systems have developed over the years and he or she has the advantage of years of walking and running experience, but a robot has to start from scratch. First the mechanical structure of limbs, joints and movements, then the computer system has to be programmed to turn the images that come through the sensors of the visual system into commands that regulate every moving part so that the robot dashes forward without injury or fall. If successful, it can be cloned and reproduced.

Even more complicated are robotic representations of human emotions and intelligence. Is there some invisible line that no mechanical human-made creature can ever cross? Christians who accept the possibility of evolution believe that at some point in the upward evolution of some primate, the conditions were finally right for God to endow the creature with a soul and humankind was born with intelligence, free will, conscience, immortality and the moral responsibility to do good and avoid evil.

Is it possible that humans could develop the art of making robots to the point that conditions are just right for God to give them souls, endowing them with intelligence, free will, conscience, moral responsibility and immortality? Should this happen or seem to happen, what a raging theological discussion and controversy it would create!

The lesson to learn from all this is that no matter what humankind manages to develop and build, it can never relinquish the moral responsibility to use it well for the common good.

Here is a fable I wrote that illustrates this problem.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/bob_robots.swf{/rokbox}

Tuesday, 25 November 2008

海神做拿去

There is a growing number of movies and TV episodes that tell of conflicts between human intelligence and the artificial intelligence designed by humans for the control of human-like robots, machines that simulate human activity. A scenario envisioned by many scientists is to develop and manufacture humanoid robots that look and act, even feel and think as humans do. These humanoids would then be available to perform human tasks freeing humans for leisure activities. So long as there are no problems in the programs that control the robots, everything goes well. But suppose that some bad humans program the robots to attack and enslave the rest of mankind so they become the masters of the world maintaining complete control over the robots.

Another deviation depicted in stories is that the digital intelligence planted in robots develops into an independent intelligence no longer under human control and the robots then eliminate the humans to take over the world for themselves. Of course, in all the stories in the end some humans manage to instill a virus into the robot’s cyber system or come up with some bright idea that enables them to overcome the robots and restore the human domination.

In any case the age of cybernetics is here to stay and more and more sophisticated robots are being developed. I don’t understand the digital electronic program control systems or the complicated mechanical mechanisms that respond so accurately to computer control, but it fills me with awe.

Take for instance, the action of a human dashing at top speed through a heavily wooded forest with no path or level ground. It requires a keen eye to anticipate obstacles, an intelligence to transform what is seen into decisions about where to place the feet and directions to the muscles and nerves that will control the motion of the limbs and maintain bodily balance as I dash on without slowing down or injury. A human’s neurological, muscular and skeletal systems have developed over the years and he or she has the advantage of years of walking and running experience, but a robot has to start from scratch. First the mechanical structure of limbs, joints and movements, then the computer system has to be programmed to turn the images that come through the sensors of the visual system into commands that regulate every moving part so that the robot dashes forward without injury or fall. If successful, it can be cloned and reproduced.

Even more complicated are robotic representations of human emotions and intelligence. Is there some invisible line that no mechanical human-made creature can ever cross? Christians who accept the possibility of evolution believe that at some point in the upward evolution of some primate, the conditions were finally right for God to endow the creature with a soul and humankind was born with intelligence, free will, conscience, immortality and the moral responsibility to do good and avoid evil.

Is it possible that humans could develop the art of making robots to the point that conditions are just right for God to give them souls, endowing them with intelligence, free will, conscience, moral responsibility and immortality? Should this happen or seem to happen, what a raging theological discussion and controversy it would create!

The lesson to learn from all this is that no matter what humankind manages to develop and build, it can never relinquish the moral responsibility to use it well for the common good.

Here is a fable I wrote that illustrates this problem.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/bob_robots.swf{/rokbox}

Thursday, 20 November 2008

Tafalong a niyaro

In this excerpt of Renlai’s documentary, the grand-father of Nakao, Angah Foday, sings the ancestral Tafalong song which recounts the origins of the village. He is surrounded by relatives while they all sit in the traditional common house that has recently been reconstituted. (English translation of the song due to Nakao Eki.)

{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/stories/thumbnails_video/tafalong_a_niyaro_thumb.jpg|}media/articles/AngahFoday_TafalongaNiyao.flv{/rokbox}

Monday, 17 November 2008

The salt of the earth

Salt, air and water are three of the most abundant natural resources on earth. All are very important for life. They are free for the taking, but the taking is not always free. Water falls free of charge from the sky and flows from the earth freely in springs, is spread around by streams and rivers and collected conveniently in lakes and ponds. For those who live next to where water passes by or collects gathering it by hand held conveyances is relatively easy. Expenses begin to mount, however, when it is necessary to dig ditches for irrigation, build aqueducts or lay pipelines, to say nothing of the added expenses nowadays of pollution control and purification. Obtaining fresh water from sea water is even more expensive.

Before humans began to ascend to high altitudes and descend into ocean depths, breathing involved no expense whatever. Nowadays, however, the expenses needed for purifying the air due to pollution are skyrocketing.

Salt has a reverse history of going from being a very expensive commodity to one that to most people is completely inconsequential. Salt is essential for healing, fluid balance, digestion, etc. There are nine grams of salt in every liter of blood in all vertebrates. Salt is necessary for the preservation of food without refrigeration. The biggest problem with salt is that it not being universally or conveniently so that those who do have it or can produce it have a stranglehold over those who need it. Very early in history governments stepped in to monopolize the sources of salt and even to add taxes to the purchase of salt. There have been places where salt was used as currency; the word “salary” is derived from the Latin word for the allotment of salt as part of a soldier’s pay; wars have been fought to defend or capture sources of salt; revolutions have been instigated to overthrow governments that imposed salt taxes, etc.

When finally salt taxes were eliminated and government monopolies broken up, the diversification brought prices down dramatically. The average price of processed salt per metric ton in 2002 was about $120 for hot pan processed and $6 for brine evaporation processed. The use of salt in making plastics and dozens of industrial processes brings great profits to the processors and miners of salt. In California alone, for example, the production of salt is a billion dollar business.

There is apparently an inexhaustible supply of salt. That is what they used to say about oil and coal. Let us hope that it is true this time.


Wednesday, 22 October 2008

Dancing a Life that Can be Sustained

What does a man carry in his life? What’s the purpose of life? What can a man leave after him when he dies? These are the questions I often ask myself when working in the “Yuan Dancers”.
I have gotten used to the “sacred” body perception of the state of dancing and chanting in the aboriginal ritual. When I have to get back on the “human” state of body perception, it means to enter a process of self-reflection. In rehearsal, “self inspection” is a mental exercise that I usually take.

The moment of performing is a kind of memory and also a self-awakening. Every era has its own heavy cultural burden. The historical wound that remains from the aboriginal history in every rehearsal strikes my mind. Therefore I often ask myself: “Is it really me who is suffering from the pain? Or is it somebody else?” Several times, my senses became apathetic, just like what Emily Dickinson described, ‘After a huge pain, follows a feeling of desert. The nerves sit still as a grave. The numb heart inquires: is it him who suffers from pain? Is it yesterday? Or centuries ago?’

I kept wondering, what has made my spirit recover? Tagore once said, ‘Make me your wine cup. Let my filled cup be offered to you and to the ones who belong to you.” Then, what is filling the cup? That is something which we always forgot; that is “Love”. The love, like the one of Gao Yi-sheng from the Zou ethnic group in A-li Mountain, is expressed in his letters and songs, an unselfish love for his land, his ethnic group, his family. Therefore, we only hope to “become your wine cup, offered to you.”

People are always nostalgic about things past. If it were not for the threat of death, people wouldn’t cherish nor reflect on themselves, and there wouldn’t be the so-called “Existence’ question. However, no matter how we explain Love, we cannot interpret nor experience the essence of Love. Love can be measured only by itself. We should better open up out mind and let go the feeling of love. So that we’ll know how long and wide love is.
What does a man carry in his life? What’s the purpose of life? What can a man leave after him when he dies? I think that is ‘Love’, ‘Hope’, and ‘Faith’.
Yuan Dancers website

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/stories/dancing.jpg|}media/articles/07Watan_eng.swf{/rokbox}

Monday, 08 September 2008

在绝境中绽放极致

石渠地处青藏高原东南部的川、青、藏三省区交界处,是四川省海拔最高、面积最大、位置最偏远、气候最寒冷的一个县,隶属于甘孜藏族自治州,距四川省会成都1070公里,虽处于极端恶劣的地理天候,却是宗教、文学、艺术之渊泉。它纵乏人所识,自古迄今迳自绽放着人类精神文明的极致。
石渠,是藏语“扎溪卡”之意,即“雅砻江边”,位于平均海拔4526.9公尺的世界高原,含氧量只有平原地区的46%,境内气温低,日照长,昼夜温差大,长冬无夏,四季不明。“6月飞雪7月冰,8月封山9月冬,一年四季刮大风”,年平均气温-1.6°C,最低气温-46°C。高原是贫瘠的,漫长的冬季构成她灰暗的主色调,偏远、严寒、荒凉似乎成为其永远的代名词,有人用“不长树,只长草,牦牛多,人口少”来概括石渠,由于高寒缺氧,自然条件恶劣而被视为“生命禁区”的石渠,是巴山蜀水离太阳最近的地方,养育着一代又一代逐水草而居的游牧民,他们称自己为-“太阳部落”。太阳部落的儿女,以其顽强坚韧的生命力和非凡的创造力、想象力创造了一个又一个奇迹,令举世瞩目,在绝境中绽放极致。这里是世界最长史诗《格萨尔王传》的发祥地;这里是石刻艺术王国:有世界上最远古的石经城、最长的石经墙、文成公主进藏时留下的照阿娜姆石刻;这里还有原始古朴,被人类学家称为“活化石”的查加部落。
世上最长史诗——《格萨尔王传》
藏族有句谚语:“岭国每人嘴里都有一部《格萨尔》”。藏民族伟大的说唱文学杰作《格萨尔王传》被当今世界公认为东方的《伊里亚特》,是世界上最长的一部活形态史诗,是藏族人民集体智慧的结晶,大约产生于公元前后至公元五、六世纪。氏族、部落、部族和民族之间的战争是格萨尔故事的源头,英雄人物和战争史实辗转繁变而终成故事,并在人们记忆中与信仰结合,代代相传。
格萨尔故事的基本框架虚实并存,内容从格萨尔作为天神之子降生人世到称王、征战草原、降妖伏魔,安定三界,最终功德圆满返归天界,整个史诗完全被包容在庞大的神话体系之中,并溶合藏族古代诗歌、谚语等民间文学,由说唱艺人以不同的风格吟唱至今。《格萨尔王传》发展到今天,已经不再是单纯意义上的民间文学作品,其内涵和外延都得到了拓展,并形成了一套独特的文化体系。
甘孜州被称为“格萨尔故里”、‘格萨尔文化核心地区’,是格萨尔文化极为发达、《格萨尔王传》和说唱艺人分布最广的地区,扎溪卡更有着“格萨尔文化摇篮”的美誉。格萨尔诞生于今甘孜州德格县阿须乡的吉苏雅给康多,该地紧邻扎溪卡大草原东部边缘的雅砻江畔,扎溪卡是岭•格萨尔王幼年流浪和成年南征北战常来常往的地方,史诗中震撼人心的许多传奇故事就发生在扎溪卡草原,当地与格萨尔文化有关的遗迹就有44处之多。其中最具代表性的有:洛须镇龙溪卡村的邓玛宗堡遗址;真达乡甲日村的岭国三十员大将之一的尼绷达亚城堡遗址;瓦土的格萨尔王爱妃珠牡夏季下帐行宫遗址;洛须的丹达沟有格萨尔王的遗迹多处;嘎依乡境内的嘎依温泉,相传为格萨尔王和其爱妃珠牡以及三十员大将夏季沐浴之地,当地人们称其为格萨尔温泉,温泉群被逐个冠以格萨尔三十员大将、岭国七姊妹的名字,附近牧区还流传着这样一句话:“用热泉擦身洗脸,能洗尽前生罪孽,脱尽今生鄙俗,得到格萨尔庇护”;长沙干马乡的贾查格塘曾是“霍岭大战”中的血战之地,格萨尔王的同父异母兄弟贾查霞尕尔就战死于此地,后人为纪念他而雕刻的其半身石像,至今犹存;岭国三十员大将中,贾查霞尕尔、叉向丹玛香查均出生于石渠。松格嘛呢石经城珍藏着岭•格萨尔王及其三十员大将石刻30余尊,巴格嘛呢石经墙保留着岭•格萨尔王石刻近10尊,石渠一些寺庙和民间也保存着许多岭•格萨尔王及岭国著名人物的遗物,这充分体现出扎溪卡草原与格萨尔文化的紧密联系。
如果说上述与格萨尔王有关的地名是对格萨尔王驰骋草地雪原,成就轰轰烈烈事业的记载和证明,是一种静态的记录与反映。那么,那些在这片高原圣地土生土长,口中滔滔不绝讲出格萨尔王故事的说唱艺人,则让史诗《格萨尔王》借助他们的口,得以存在并流传下来,这是一种震撼人心的动态的传承与传播,说唱艺人每一次说唱都是一个再创作的过程,就是在这种不断创作的过程中,格萨尔史诗不断得以充实,得以延续和发展,得以流芳百世。对于深信格萨尔曾经就在这块土地上生活、征战过的高原人来说,叱咤风云的英雄格萨尔从未离开过他们,格萨尔王的勇敢、力量、智慧和精神,渗透到他们生活的方方面面,成为他们坦然面对恶劣环境的心灵寄托。牧区中广为流传着这样一种说法:“格萨尔王和他的三十员大将其实也是要转世的,转世后的格萨尔王和他的大将们就生活在牧民中间”,这种说法形象地反映了格萨尔无时不在、无处不在的真实感觉。
扎溪卡大草原,《格萨尔王传》的发祥地,这是一个到处都弥漫着格萨尔的气息,到处都印有格萨尔的足迹,到处都流传着格萨尔王故事的地方,无论你走到哪里,无论你在做什么,有意无意间,你总能真真切切感受到格萨尔的存在,民间经久不衰的格萨尔说唱还在进行,讲述格萨尔故事的藏戏还在上演,格萨尔就这样真实执着地活在扎溪卡山的怀抱、草的原野,雪的世界中,活在帐篷的火塘边、活在牧人的心田里…

千年垒砌的信仰——松格嘛呢石经城
人类与石头之间的关系源远流长,我们今天所见到的原始艺术遗址,大多都是以石刻的形式保留在石头与岩崖中。2004年,联合国教科文组织公布:原始艺术99%的内容都是由岩画所构成。有人类学家认为:雕刻或绘制于石头上的图案与神秘符号,不仅是人类最早的艺术表达方式,也是最早的宗教表达方式之一。
中国是世界上最早有文献记录人们在石头上从事艺术创作活动的国家。
我国青藏高原早期文化也与石头有着不解的渊源与神秘的联系,青藏高原多山多石,凡有人类居住生活的地方,必有石头为伴,人们的精神生活也与石头存在着千丝万缕的联系,传说藏族唐卡最古老的源头就是一幅石板画:年轻的画家远走他乡,当他思念自己情人的时候,便在石板上刻画出她美丽动人的身影…藏民族从远古时代开始对“嘛呢石”的崇拜习俗,世代相传,在青藏高原,石刻遗存几乎遍布每个角落。如今,石刻艺术已成为藏传佛教雕刻艺术中最流行,最普遍的表达形式之一,在藏传佛教雕刻艺术种类中其数量最多、规模最大,具有极为广泛的民间性和自由参与的随意性,在辽阔的草原牧区,因寺庙稀少且距离遥远,嘛呢石刻往往成为牧区民众表达和实现信仰的一种主要方式。
在石渠境内的扎溪卡大草原深处,隐藏着一处不为人知的极其罕见的世界奇观:一座完全由信众自发垒建,用一块块刻满佛教经文、六字真言和佛像的嘛呢石块堆砌而成的嘛呢石城——松格嘛呢石经城,其独特的佛教坛城造型和千年历史令人叹为观止。
松格嘛呢石经城位于距石渠县城呢呷镇东北约90公里处的阿日扎乡境内,坐落在雅砻江支流洛曲河西岸一处有着浅丘宽谷的草原间,背靠一座平缓、浑圆的山丘,前面是一望无际的草原,由于草原极为辽阔,远远望去,整座城并不显得特别雄伟、壮观,但走近细看,这座用一块块一锤一凿地刻满经文和佛像的石片、石块在千百年的漫长岁月中逐渐垒砌起来的城,所蕴含的厚重与苍茫,坚韧与神秘,让我想起德国诗人荷尔德林所说的“那些四处飘游的分散的力量,都汇聚在一个黄金般的中心”。
松格嘛呢石经城的传说
关于石经城的建造年代和来历,当地流传这样的传说:相传在格萨尔时代,格萨尔王同父异母兄弟贾查霞尕尔及格萨尔王军师的儿子在霍岭大战中被措通出卖,战死于此地。措通为了忏悔,让死者的亡灵安息,在各方帮助下仅用七天时间就在此地垒起嘛呢堆,建起白塔,格萨尔亲自为其开光加持。随着时间的推移,嘛呢堆和白塔渐渐被风沙所覆盖,远远望去,就象一座小土丘。十六世纪的一天,普公寺第一世活佛白玛仁青与僧人在益江罗布扎登的草原上烧茶供奉时,突然从远处飞来一只大鸟(护法护善神鸟)把供奉的茶杯叼走,僧人们大喊着赶紧去追赶,白玛仁青对僧人们说:“别大喊大叫,我们悄悄跟随它”,大鸟飞到土丘前,围着土丘飞了三圈,把茶杯供奉在小土丘上。白玛仁青认定这是一个吉兆,就在小土丘的四周立下四块石碑,在这里建立了一处供人们朝拜的场所,随后人们在此基础上,一个世纪接着一个世纪不断堆积刻有经文的石块,终于使其成为举世无双的石经城。
在石经城正面中央位置的神龛内,供奉有格萨尔王及其三十员大将的彩绘石刻像,石渠县文物部门曾在松格嘛呢石经城墙基处向下挖过一条深1.5米的沟,发现下面嘛呢石刻上所刻经文多为梵文,这表明,有关松格嘛呢石经城始建时代,格萨尔传说与梵文石经所提供的年代线索大体吻合,石经城的始建年代可上溯到11-12世纪。这一时期恰好也是岭•格萨尔之原型岭氏家族势力活跃的时期,城的墙基处一些字迹已风蚀而显得漫漶的苯教雍仲符号,则表明在石经城始建的时代,苯教在当地具有相当势力。由此看来,石经城始建的历史至少已有近千年。
除此之外,民间还流传着松格嘛呢石经城的种种传说,相传在一个月光明媚的夜晚,一位僧人亲眼看见一位个子很高的似人非人的护法神在转经,等这位僧人走近细看时,神已在一阵幽迷的香气和悦耳的法器声中悄然离去,地下留下了比人脚大三倍的脚印,不久,有人看见嘛呢石缝中长出青翠的竹子,还有人看见嘛呢石里蹦出能治病的甘露丸。在扎溪卡草原,像这样神奇的传说和故事多得像满天繁星。
独一无二的艺术迷宫
松格嘛呢石经城坐北朝南,呈长方形。东西长73米,南北宽47米,外墙高10米,城中心主体部份最高处为15米。经城四周挂满经幡,都是转经的信众敬献的。在石经城四周的墙体上布满了重重叠叠的神龛,放置着各种雕刻精美的彩绘石刻佛像与神像。石刻中有浅浮雕,也有线刻,虽在岁月的侵蚀下褪去了颜色,但雕刻技法独具特色,每一块经文都刻得工整有序,佛像雕刻得栩栩如生。许多石刻像看上去年代久远,历经沧桑。据专家学者实地勘察统计,仅石经城外围墙上就布有神龛383处,其中正面墙204处,东面墙68处,西面墙62处,背面墙49处,放置在其中的佛像数不胜数。有些神龛被洁白的哈达遮盖得严严实实,里面摆放的是松格嘛呢石经城最古老最珍贵的石经板。
在石经城正面偏西位置,有一道小门,由此可进入城内。整座城内是一层层一圈圈的嘛呢墙,密密麻麻地刻满各种经文和佛像,中间仅留有狭窄的通道可供通行,通道在高高的嘛呢石壁中弯来拐去,忽左忽右,忽高忽低,行走于其中如同走进一座奇妙的迷宫。石经城的每块石板,都刻有不同的经文和不同的佛像,嘛呢石堆中,一字一石,六字一石,或是整本佛经完整地刻在很多块石板上,连封面封底都完美无缺,这些刻上文字的石块充满灵性,被人们虔诚地排放在嘛呢堆上,组成一套套独特的“石刻经书”,这些笔法酣畅,似行云流水,笔断意连的石刻经书,使得松格嘛呢石经城成为世界上最浩大的一所没有围墙的石头图书馆。松格嘛呢石经城内的主要经文有:“六字真言”、“丹珠尔”、“甘珠尔”等。嘛呢城的嘛呢石见证了藏族文化的发展,从埋在土里的梵文嘛呢石到顶端的现在藏文嘛呢石,演绎了千年来藏族文字的变迁。在嘛呢城内同样布满了无数的神龛,供奉着技法精湛,神态各异的石刻佛像,就神龛内原色或彩绘石刻佛像的种类和精美程度而言,松格嘛呢石经城堪称是一座草原上的石刻艺术博物馆。在石经城中刻绘佛像最多的是格萨尔王和三十员大将,这些佛像、文字种类繁多,极具艺术价值和文物价值,是研究格萨尔文化的重要资料。
在城中偏东位置,有一座用嘛呢石砌成的佛塔,塔高约5-6米。城中最神秘的去处,是一处用5个依次大小的石圆圈重叠垒起来的井眼。此处为城内地势最低处,大约与地面平行。据说这个井眼所在位置是城的中心,是整座石经城的“心脏”。在5个重叠起来的石圆圈上面盖着一块嘛呢石,揭开嘛呢石,石圆圈中央有一个井眼。据当地藏人介绍说,这个井眼深不见底,对着井眼俯耳倾听,可听到河水的流动声,寺庙的螺声、鼓声,甚至战马的奔腾声。
令人惊叹称奇的是,这座庞大、壮观宏伟的石经城居然没有任何框架作支撑,也没有使用任何黏和剂,完全由一块块嘛呢石块堆砌而成,所需石材全部取自石经城周边的山坡,在气候严寒恶劣,风沙肆虐的高原,它竟历经千年巍然屹立,岿然不动,不能不说是建筑史上的一个奇迹。石经城将寺庙建筑与石刻文化完美地结合在一起,古朴、奇特,具有很高的建筑艺术价值。
升沉不息的遗世活城
松格嘛呢石经城是一座“活”着的城,自它存在以来,其建造就从未停止过,随着四面八方朝圣者的到来,每年都有无数新的嘛呢石刻不断往上垒砌。因为草原地下水位高,土质软,嘛呢石垒砌太高,地面不堪重负,石经城处于不断下沉的状态,所以也有人说松格嘛呢石经城永远“长”不高,石经城地面部分有多高,其陷入地下的部分就有多深,这意味着,地上所见的松格嘛呢石经城,只是它的一半,还有另一半陷入了地面以下。每年藏历年的正月,从城的墙基处会源源不断渗出一种红泥,当地藏人视其为珍贵藏药,用来治病,据说疗效甚佳。墙基渗泥很明显是城下沉过程中的挤压之物,说明石经城每年的确在下沉,且下沉时间主要在冬季。而从城内中心井眼中所能感受到的潮湿与空灵,也表明城的地基松软潮湿,其承载力可想而知。看来,升沉不息的遗世活城,并不是人们的妄加猜测。
松格嘛呢石经城蕴藏着丰厚博积的藏族宗教、文学、艺术、建筑乃至民俗文化,其博大精深和悠远高古,沉淀在千百年来的历史变迁中,当之无愧成为藏传佛教信徒们的圣地。松格嘛呢石经城是世界上最大的嘛呢石经城,是嘛呢石刻文化的巅峰之作。它仿佛是康藏高原上贯穿着“神性”的海市蜃楼,犹如上天所赐。松格嘛呢,奇迹之城,它体现了一种属于人类的精神力量,它是一座具有世界意义与人类价值的“城”。

绵延雪域的长城——巴格嘛呢石经墙
巴格嘛呢石经墙位于石渠县西边长沙贡马乡境内的扎•马莫康多扎西,距县城53公里,因其嘛呢石堆砌类似城墙而得名,巴格玛尼墙后倚雄伟的扎家庞秀神山,前傍奔流不息的雅砻江,始建于公元1640年,由第一世巴格喇嘛桑登彭措堆建,距今约三百六十多年的历史,它不只是石刻艺术长廊,也是一座信仰的长城。
巴格嘛呢石经墙经过历代巴格喇嘛活佛的维修和加长,现石墙长1.7公里,宽2——3.5米,高2.5——3.5米。墙体全部由嘛呢石片垒砌而成,砌墙的嘛呢石被平放重叠,石上的经文被藏在了墙体中,只显露出侧面的一两行。墙体两面嵌着一个个窗口式大小不一的佛龛,里面摆放着信徒们供奉的石刻原色或彩绘佛像,佛像共计三千多尊,形象极为生动传神。墙体内刻有藏文《甘珠尔》、《丹珠尔》各两部,《贤劫经》一千部,《解脱经》五千余部,还有数以亿记的大大小小嘛呢石。嘛呢石多刻六字箴言,简短的六个神秘字符,在每一个石头上各有不同呈现,它们或以本色示人,或被点染以红、绿、黄各色。嘛呢石除刻经文外,有的还在旁边装饰着酥油灯、花、太阳等图案,能感受到刻经师的别具匠心;有的嘛呢石上只雕刻图案,内容是各种佛像或奇异的神兽,线条流畅,造型生动,想像力丰富。这是一个嘛呢石的集中展示,每一块嘛呢石都寄托着美好愿望,都被赋予生命和灵性。
蜿蜒于草原上的石经墙,间或会围出一个回环的空间,类似于城墙上的烽火台。石经墙的两端挺立着高大的佛塔,中段的108座佛塔和石经墙并肩而行,佛塔下方为长长的转经筒长廊,白塔红墙,在蓝天白云下,透出佛法的神圣和庄严。在并肩而行的石经墙与108座佛塔中间,每隔一段距离,便会有八宝白塔与之相连,让墙与塔之间携手相牵,墙头上飘飞着五色经幡。巴格嘛呢石经墙的整体建筑,像绵延雪域的长城,数百年来屹立在太阳部落儿女的心中,在藏区绝无仅有。
相传公元1640年,第一世巴格喇嘛桑登彭措受其上师指点到扎加神山(藏区十大神山之一)的哲嘎山洞闭关修行。一夜,他梦见一位慈眉善目,骑白马穿白袍的人来到他面前,对他说:“修筑嘛呢石经墙,可以成就你的功业”。受此点化,桑登彭措开始四处选址修筑嘛呢石经墙,选择修筑地点出奇地顺利,他凭直觉很快找到一处吉祥之地,这里不仅拥有一块巨大的天然嘛呢石,同时显现出诸多吉兆,桑登彭措决定在此地动工修筑嘛呢石经墙,恰在此时,有一人将两块分别刻有藏文六字真言与莲花生大师真言的浮雕石板敬献给桑登彭措,桑登彭措问来者姓名,来者自我介绍说:“我叫嘛呢泽仁,是雕刻师”,“嘛呢泽仁”藏语意为长寿嘛呢,桑登彭措闻言大喜,认定这是好兆头,欲赠来者一头白骡子,却被来者婉言谢绝。桑登彭措后来得知来者是念青唐古拉神山的化身,是专门为他送吉兆,坚定他修筑嘛呢石经墙的信心而来。现在巴格嘛呢石经墙中,还能看到念青唐古拉山神赠送的这两块石板。
第二世巴格喇嘛根绒活佛不仅在原有的基础上对巴格嘛呢石经墙进行扩建,还长期在这里举行盛大的转法轮会,吸引无数信众到此朝拜。
传说第三世巴格喇嘛尼美曲翁曾目睹观世音下凡,广阔的草原好似浩瀚无边的大海,观世音将手中的佛珠交给尼美曲翁,示意其将佛珠撒向草海,在尼美曲翁扬手将佛珠撒落草海之际,阳光在水天相映中:如梦如幻般隐约浮现出一段长长的嘛呢石经墙。观世音对尼美曲翁说,修筑嘛呢石经墙,功德无量。在观世音指点下,尼美曲翁加大了修筑嘛呢石经墙的速度和规模,邀请降拥•嵌哲翁波等高僧大德给巴格嘛呢石经墙开光,并修建了巴格嘛呢石经墙最为著名的善墙与恶墙。
善墙的修建据传源于一段凄美动人的爱情故事。当年扎溪卡草原一个部落首领的女儿爱上一个贫苦牧民的儿子,由于双方家庭贫富悬殊,他们的相爱遭到了各自家族的强烈反对。为了追求自由的爱情,两人决定私奔,渡过雅砻江去追寻他们的幸福生活,骑马渡江时,姑娘不慎落水被激流卷走,小伙子在江边无数次呼唤寻找,直到声嘶力竭也未能唤回心上人,悲痛欲绝的小伙子决定投江追随心爱的姑娘而去,幸遇在此修行的巴格活佛相救,劝其皈依佛门,小伙子出家当了喇嘛,并将姑娘留下的财宝供奉给了巴格活佛。巴格活佛为劝戒世人爱惜生命、净化灵魂、超脱尘世,用小伙子供奉的财宝,在原有的嘛呢墙后加长了一段,修建起巴格嘛呢石经墙的“善墙”。 善墙后来成为象征爱情永恒的“善之墙”,善墙的空间里,放满相亲相爱的人儿在此留下的爱情信物:宝石、布条、头发、牙齿…应有尽有,他们让神圣的嘛呢墙来见证他们的爱,祈求爱情天长地久。
恶墙的修建也有一个故事:两个情同手足的好朋友结伴远行,其中一人见同伴随身所带行李中财物颇丰,遂起谋财害命之心,趁同伴不备将其推入雅砻江,背起同伴行囊准备逃之夭夭,巴格活佛观其言行即知其犯事而逃,遂劝其弃恶从善,回头是岸。在巴格活佛的耐心劝导下,年轻人终于悔悟,恶念尽去,从此跟随活佛皈依佛门,活佛劝他用劫来的财物修了一段“恶墙”, 警示后人,劝戒世人抛弃恶念,一心向佛。
第四世巴格喇嘛贡夏•曲尼多吉四十多岁时在噶陀•摩扎和协庆•翁波上师指点下来到巴格嘛呢石经墙,在石经墙边巧遇一位转经老人,见老人转经时非常虔诚,贡夏•曲尼多吉忍不住上前询问老人的姓名,老人告诉贡夏•曲尼多吉他叫然休•泽休后反问:“您住在哪里,有没有吃的穿的?”贡夏•曲尼多吉回答:“我一无所有,想在此地居住”。老人闻言马上从马背上取下坐褥请贡夏•曲尼多吉坐下,并对他说:“请暂用此褥,我家住在扎•岗青山上,我马上赶回去准备食物和生活用品,明天给您送来”,说完,策马飞奔而去。第二天,老人送来一顶帐篷和足够三个月的食物,深受感动的贡夏•曲尼多吉就这样住了下来,开始潜心扩建嘛呢石经墙,在石经墙原有基础上增加了《甘珠尔》、《丹珠尔》的内容,同时修建了八座佛塔,邀请四十七座寺院的僧侣为其开光加持了两次。
如果说古代的巴格喇嘛与巴格嘛呢石经墙的关系存在于尘封的历史与神奇的传说之中,现年31岁的出生于嘎依乡八若村的第二世贡夏活佛与巴格嘛呢石经墙的联系,在当下便显得无比真实与鲜活了。1977年,第一世贡夏活佛圆寂后不久,刚满2岁的他便被认定为第二世贡夏活佛的转世。与历代巴格喇嘛一样,扩修与加持巴格嘛呢石经墙成为贡夏活佛成年后发愿毕生成就的事业。为了筹集扩修巴格嘛呢石经墙的资金,贡夏活佛呕心沥血,四处奔走。2006年,长沙贡马乡扎加寺69岁的活佛降称让拥圆寂后,为贡夏活佛留下了一笔财产,贡夏活佛将老活佛留给他的财产全部变换成现钱,用于修建石经墙。在贡夏活佛主持下,蛮姆坝草滩林立的白帐篷中,上百能工巧匠集体雕刻石经板,成为当地一道壮观、独特的风景。工匠们一天刻的石经板要装满小型载重汽车15车次,每车装载60至70块石经板,光费用这一项,一年就要花费人民币80万元左右。 “巴格嘛呢石经墙,我们会继续修下去。去年,我们刻完了全套《甘珠尔》,今年要刻完《丹珠尔》。”贡夏活佛满脸庄重,坚定不移地说。众所周知,藏文大藏经分为甘珠尔、丹珠尔两大部分,甘珠尔意为“佛语部”,丹珠尔意为“论疏部”。现存最完好的德格藏《甘珠尔》,总计100函700余部,德格藏《丹珠尔》总计213函3400余部。
贡夏活佛的宏愿,就是将这4100部经书,逐行逐字雕刻在石头上,增添到巴格嘛呢石经墙中。
而那些从各地赶来朝圣的信徒和众多相爱的青年男女,也满怀虔诚之心在这里垒上一块又一块代表他们心愿的嘛呢石,日积月累,巴格嘛呢石经墙不停地长高,并向着草原深处不断延伸……
巴格嘛呢石经墙是历代巴格喇嘛不断扩建和维修的伟大功业的见证,也是三百五十多年以来扎溪卡部落历史的见证,对太阳部落悠久的历史文化有着十分重要的研究价值。
在高原蓝色的天穹下,面对浓缩着藏族历史与文化的松格嘛呢石经城和巴格嘛呢石经墙,我感到灵魂正一点点被洁净着,一种蕴含着无边美丽的力量,像深不可测的海水,覆盖在上面,让我情不自禁融入摇着转经筒,或一步一拜磕着长头的虔诚的信徒中,开始我的朝圣之路……

唐代雕刻像——照阿娜姆石刻
位于石渠县洛须乡丹达村境内的照阿娜母石刻,传说为文成公主进藏时所刻,距今已有一千三百多年历史。
公元640年吐蕃王朝第三十二位松赞甘布派遣使者至长安,献金5000两,珍玩数百,向唐朝请婚,太宗许嫁宗女文成公主。公元641年,文成公主在唐送亲使和吐蕃迎亲专使等众多大将伴随下,出长安前往吐蕃。公主一行在经过青海玉树(现玉树文成公主庙址)时,发现这里气候宜人,风景秀美,堪称风水宝地,望着长途跋涉后疲惫不堪的人马,公主决定在此扎营休整一段时间后再继续前行。扎营后,公主一行尽情游玩,并将足迹扩大到玉树邻近地区,包括石渠。在此地停留期间,文成公主受到当地藏族部落首领和百姓的盛情款待,深受感动的公主,除教给当地民众耕作、纺织技术外,为给当地百姓祈愿祝福,还在该地区四个方位的悬崖峭壁上刻了四种救世佛像,它们分别是:东方阴各村峭壁上的三尊如来佛;南方志玛拉宫对面江边峭壁上的二十一尊度母像;西方白玛山脚下曲革龙大石壁上的一尊普贤菩萨像;北方龙绒沟路边立石峭壁上的三尊无量寿佛像。其中北方的三尊无量寿佛像,位于石渠境内。 传说当年当地百姓拜见文成公主时,见公主美若天仙,认定公主是仙女下凡,遂将刻有无量寿佛像的大立石,称为照阿娜姆(仙女崖)。 “照阿娜姆”石刻刻在一个陡峭壁立的孤崖上,孤崖高约30余米,石刻凿刻于孤崖的下方。石刻高约10米,宽约6米,上面刻就3尊无量寿佛像,这三尊佛像,中间那尊最大,左右两尊较小,中间那尊最大的叫泽巴麦,意即长命菩萨,是专门掌管人们寿命长短的菩萨;右边那尊叫啪巴先乃热,是专管念经的菩萨;左边的叫香郎多吉,是保平安除灾难的菩萨,三尊佛像虽历经千年风霜,但其线条仍清晰可见,从雕像的线条勾勒及服饰装饰上,足以看出雕像的确为唐朝时期所刻。佛像下部,刻有藏汉两种文字的经文,但其内容艰深,其意至今无人能解。
多年来,当地流行着这样一种习俗,每当人们到照阿娜姆朝拜时,都会将自己贴身衣扣解下,贴于佛像下侧,以祈求菩萨保佑自己和家人平安健康长寿,据说特别灵验,朝拜者络绎不绝。

最古老的部落——查加

石渠面积25191平方公里,人口只有7.01万人(藏族占总人口数的98%),也就是说,平均每平方公里不到三个人。除了石渠县城和县城附近的乡镇,大多数地方都是人迹罕至的处女地。
风光迤丽的扎溪卡草原,滋养了18 个逐水草而居的游牧部落。据史料分析,这些游牧部落源于古代氏族部落,在频繁的迁徙、同外族部落的争战以及与古西羌、党项、吐谷浑等异族长期混居,相互融合中逐渐形成。他们在扎溪卡草原上狩猎、拓荒、放牧…与严酷恶劣的自然环境抗争,繁衍生息,不断延续和创造高原民族的文明史。在扎溪卡草原上流传着这样的传说:相传在久远的年代,一头神牦牛被冰雪禁锢在格拉丹冬雪山上,一群勇敢的藏族汉子爬上与天空触手可及的雪峰,从太阳那里引来火种,熊熊火焰使冰雪融化,神牦牛苏醒了,一股清澈晶莹的雪水从它的鼻孔中喷涌而出,从此草原有了涓涓溪水和清清河流,在水的滋润下,广袤的草原,水草丰美,牛羊成群,处处响起高亢悠扬的牧歌……太阳因此成为当地藏族崇拜的图腾,生活在这块土地上的游牧民族,自称为“太阳部落”。
部落文化对扎溪卡草原上的人们影响非常深刻,即使在今天,扎溪卡草原上仍有原始游牧部落遗存,其中以查加部落最具代表性。据说查加人是草原上最古老的部落之一,查加部落在离石渠县城100多公里的长须贡马乡境内,共有60多户牧民。那是一个完全与世隔绝,尚未被现代文明之光照耀的角落,那里的人们仍沿袭着自己固有的文化传统,处于一种封闭落后的生产生活状态。尽管它早已被划为了乡里的一个行政村,还设立了村委会,但是人们还是习惯称它为部落。公路只能通到长须贡马乡上,走访查加部落唯一的交通方式就是骑马,查加部落的60多户牧民住得相当分散,分布在大草原上的各个草场。骑马走了整整一天,才零零星星,陆陆续续看到几户人家。
查加部落上个世纪从雅砻江下游一个叫查加的地方迁来。由于是外来部落,他们很少与周围部落往来,处在相对封闭的状态,完整保留着原始部落的许多戒规和习俗。
在查加部落,无论男女都不沾烟酒,不与其他部落通婚,据说,曾有一个查加部落头人,将自己视为掌上明珠的宝贝女儿嫁给了另一个部落头人的儿子,可谓是门当户对。但女儿婚后却因多年没有生育遭到男方家人的虐待和嫌弃,最终被扫地出门。爱女心切的父亲带着族人前去论理,反被对方侮辱了一顿,忍无可忍的父亲一气之下派人杀了男方家的两个儿子。为了躲避残酷的报复,查加人不得不远走他乡,并从此立下族规,决不允许女儿外嫁,男人也不可以娶外部落的女人。由于部落性别比例失调以及近亲繁衍,人口增长极为缓慢,查加部落的人口延续已经到了严峻的程度。至今部落中还存在着一妻多夫,一夫多妻的现象。
流动寺庙为查加部落所独有,逐水草而居的生活方式和游牧民族崇尚自由的天性,使得查加人不可能心安理得地在一个地方定居下来,查加人随时随地都准备着再次迁徙。因为频繁的迁徙,查加人心目中神圣的寺庙是建在帐篷里的,可以驮上马背任意搬迁。流动寺庙冬天是一顶黑色的牛毛帐篷,夏天是一顶白布帐篷,与牧民的居家帐篷相比,寺庙帐篷要宽大得多,面积至少在一百平方米以上,能容纳更多的人。由于帐篷太大,平时它被拆成六块,由六户人家分别保管,需要的时候再把帐篷拼接起来,寺庙里所需的众多法器,也分别存放在牧民家里。当查加人随季节变化逐水草迁移到新地方时,他们要做的第一件大事就是从各家的行囊中找出保存得最细心的寺庙帐篷,你一块,我一块,集中在一起,一会儿功夫,一座或黑或白的巨型帐篷就会神奇地屹立在广袤的草原上。帐篷寺庙搭好后,再将分散在各家各户,就地取材用草坯垒成的经台、桌椅安置好;铺上红色或黄色的布,摆上神龛佛像和法号、念珠等各种法器,点亮酥油灯;从帐篷顶上垂挂下五颜六色的经幢和经幡,帐篷四壁悬挂上祖传的年代久远的唐卡。寺庙帐篷的物品布局装饰完全按照寺庙经堂摆设,一应俱全,宗教氛围与固定寺庙并无两样。移动寺庙始建于1791年,由却支•仁切布创建,名叫查加寺,属宁玛派(红教)。帐篷寺庙里的活佛和三十几个扎巴都是本部落的人,平时都各回各家,和其他人一样日出而作,日落而息,做法事时才穿上袈裟,住进帐篷寺庙里各司其职。帐篷寺庙虽然设施简陋,宗教仪式和法事程序却一丝不苟,更加凸显了信徒的虔诚。在高原恶劣的自然环境中,帐篷寺庙就这样顽强地扎根于查加人心中,与查加人形影不离,随着查加人迁徙的脚步,辗转于辽阔的草原,成为一代又一代查加人的精神支柱。
 查加人完整地保留其祖辈传下来的生活方式,用最原始的方法提取酥油。帐蓬里,查加阿妈将一小桶新鲜牛奶倒进羊皮口袋里,扎紧袋口,装满牛奶的羊皮口袋成了圆鼓鼓的皮囊,阿妈先将皮囊来回不停地滚动,然后用力摔打,使牛奶和酥油分离。
查加人的杀牛方式也极为独特,不用牛刀,用绳子。草原上,魁梧彪悍的查加汉子以迅雷不及掩耳之势将三百多斤重的牦牛放倒在地,先用牛皮绳绑紧牛的四蹄,再用两拇指粗的木棍压住牛的鼻翼,然后拿绳子把嘴鼻一起紧紧缠住,让牛不能呼吸,并且将绳子的一端拉过去套在牛的后蹄上,这样牛越挣扎绳子就缠得越紧,几分钟时间牛就窒息而亡。这时一个查加汉子从腰间拔出藏刀,在牛的胸口上轻轻划开一道口子,把手伸进牛胸腔中摸索一阵后用力一拽,扯断牛心脏下面的主动脉,让血流进腹腔里。接着是剥皮开膛,随后几个人你一勺我一碗从四脚朝天的牛肚子里往外舀血,足足舀了一大盆,所有内脏也取出来放在一边,这才割下牛胸脯上最好的一块肉,敬献给最尊贵的客人。那盆牛血,与切碎的内脏和牛肉混合在一起装入肠衣中,就成了藏人最喜欢吃的血肠。
不管外面的世界如何变迁,如何精彩,查加——这个在马背上生存的部落,永远都这样平静、安祥而又快乐地携家带口,赶着牛羊,唱着牧歌,珍藏着他们的帐篷寺庙,游走在扎溪卡草原上,过着自给自足,自由自在的生活,年复一年,日复一日,生生不息。
拜访查加部落,仿佛穿越时光隧道,回归到我们人类的“童年岁月”。它就像活化石一样,为人类了解和认识自己的历史提供了一个活标本。正因为如此,它在文化人类学方面的研究价值,已引起了有关专家学者的浓厚兴趣,也吸引越来越多的人走近查加部落,关注查加部落。
石渠,在绝境中绽放极致。

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/LZwhite.jpg{/rokbox}

Help us!

Help us keep the content of eRenlai free: take five minutes to make a donation

AMOUNT: 

Join our FB Group

Browse by Date

« April 2019 »
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30          

We have 2686 guests and no members online