Erenlai - A Spiritual Treasure Map 給心靈的藏寶圖
A Spiritual Treasure Map 給心靈的藏寶圖

A Spiritual Treasure Map 給心靈的藏寶圖

 

The rich wisdom found in Chinese religious and spiritual traditions is not just a treasure of the past. Let us re-discover and illuminate what China has to offer to the global spiritual quest of the modern world.

從中國到世界的天涯海角都有古老的哲思,值得活在現代社會的我們重新去探索。這些寶藏是靈魂的食糧,也是生命最底層的渴望。在生而為人的這條路上,你找過到那張給心靈的藏寶圖嗎?

 

 

Sunday, 28 March 2010

生命的告別之旅

或遲或早,我們都得告別這個世界。
當我們一步步走近告別的時刻,該如何調適自己的心態?
且讓我們隨著單國璽樞機主教的腳步,預習一趟向生命告別的旅程。

Thursday, 31 December 2009

Taoism as a Spiritual Path

The various facets of the Taoist tradition can be understood as a series of variations around a common theme: the human body is the vehicle through which spiritual experience takes place, and its nature and organization determine the steps of the spiritual growth that women and men are called to experience, while anchoring such growth into a cosmic process. The modernity of the Taoist spiritual path lies in the consistency of its focus on the cosmic and the human body taken as a whole. Such, in short, is the thesis developed by Pierre-Henry de Bruyn in his excellent compendium on Taoist teachings throughout Chinese history. While reminding one of the argument put forward by Kristopher Schipper in “The Taoist Body”, de Bruyn’s book covers an even wider ground. The author offers inspiring summaries of the major texts and schools, showing the diversity of their methods as well as the consistency of their inspiration. Though such historical continuity does not ensure the survival of Taoism, it certainly reminds one that present-day religiosity in the Chinese world cannot be understood without referring to one of its longest and richest spiritual traditions. Even if Taoist religious expressions are to undergo major changes due to continuing social transformations, its basic lessons bear a significance that goes far beyond the cultural area where they have taken shape.

See references and book review in French

 

 

Wednesday, 02 December 2009

啟動進步 的一星燭火

翻譯/張令憙 圖片提供/Photos8.com
本文亦見於2009年12月號《人籟》論辨月刊


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面對現實中看似無解的難題,真正的改革動力,是從「心」開始的革命!
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若說有一件事讓你對世界感到絕望,那就是:周遭大大小小的問題,似乎依舊留在那裡,未曾得到解決。阿富汗讓歐巴馬輾轉難眠;中東情勢的演變越來越糟;應對氣候變遷的協商拖拖拉拉;銀行業者重拾他們不當的紅利;貪污與短期利益仍阻礙多數國家轉向能長遠維繫的發展;台灣的政治依然故我……哎,台灣的政治……而這清單可以無限延伸下去。

當然,若你更仔細地注視這景象,或許會感到還沒有全然絕望。人們很容易忘記已達成的進步、已發生的突破,而我們都自然把焦點放在仍有差錯的事上。更重要的事實是,多數問題並非一兩著棋便能補救,卻需要長期、逐步增加的調整措施。尚未有人發現對抗癌症的疫苗,但各種治療模式確實比以往――譬如說十五年前――更為聰明和有效。人類以往一直都在混亂中「摸索著找到路」,未來大概也會繼續如此。「摸索著找到路」不是電影的好腳本(我們愛看的是關鍵性勝利或慘敗),但卻構成我們日常奮鬥的基本內容。


真正的進步,始於微妙的轉變
隨著聖誕時節迫近,或許會喚起我們的記憶:真正的進步往往是安靜且審慎低調的,由我們內在微妙的轉變開始,繼而傳播到周遭,如同一星燭火引燃其他火苗。舉例來說:關於氣候變遷的協商會議當然重要,而我們也需要新的法規。然而同時,人類若要克服這樣的挑戰,必須改變消費模式,意識到挑戰進而導致行為改變;企業主須承諾改用可再生、非污染性能源,即使如此一來會涉及額外成本……。這些改變實際上已在發生,正因一些相關人士及公司讓它們實現。網路散播知識和概念,公眾意見把這些轉化成改變的力量,而地方領袖不時能夠讓整個社區動起來。

這樣的結果絕非自動產生,而是始於個人,從心田裡萌芽生長――這些人決定認真看待自己能實際回應的挑戰,並且與心意相仿的人結盟。正如默觀耶穌誕生於馬槽一般,讓我們感動的往往正是這些個人或地方團體的弱質:透過微型貸款而轉型的巴基斯坦;動員起來抵制暴力的阿富汗婦女,一如數十年前愛爾蘭婦女也曾如此;奮力維護自身認同及傳統背景的原住民團體……。弔詭地,他們的弱質成了他們的力量,如同在告訴我們人生的基本原則:問題不是靠解決問題的專家就能解開,必須毅然找到根源著手處理,動力來自一場從「心」開始的革命。

附加的多媒體:
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Sunday, 25 October 2009

身體的痛

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身體的痛是小小的提醒,要我們注意正在吞噬我們的晦澀毀滅勢力……
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脊椎、脖子、背部、眼睛……有時候,身體痛得厲害……離衰竭不遠了,我們的睡眠模式受干擾,變得易怒。我們茫然若失,隱約的恐懼瀰漫在我們的意識中──究竟發生什麼事?


身體會說話
不知道別人的過程如何,但我個人是慢慢辨認出身體的痛。我會好幾天有種不安、不滿、混亂困惑的感覺,受苦好些天之後,我才突然認出具體的問題:雙眼乾澀,肩膀疼痛,因為我擔負了過重的行囊,重感冒已佔領了我的鼻子和喉嚨。其實,有種輕鬆感伴隨這發現而來。現在我曉得該怎麼做了,而且突然再次發現了自己的身體,視它如朋友,如同一個值得憐憫和關心的人,他放低了聲音輕輕告訴我,我太久沒注意到他的存在了。真的,身體會說話,而他說的往往很簡單──也很真實:「你就是不能忘記我。」

我確定每個人會以不同的方式經驗到他/她自己與身體的關係。但我想,以省思的心去經驗身體的痛,對每個人都是一種靈性經驗。當我認出自己受苦的因由時,記憶回到腦海,我想起自己曾如何持續地過度勞作(或過度放縱);我記起一些小創傷逐漸累積,終至磨蝕掉我的抵抗力。於是我以一種嶄新的方式認知我身體脆弱卻閃耀光輝的奇蹟,以及我如何錯待了它。我感謝天主,當我似乎犯盡了錯,沒有妥善對待自己所領受的賜予,卻仍然活著。


痛,也是一種提醒
我想,有一股自我毀滅的晦澀勢力居留於我們所有人之內。為了某種理由(也或許沒有任何理由),我們跟自己的存在作對。過度工作,物質的濫用,過分悲觀,不時自憐,這些都顯示我們如何成了自己衰退的幫兇。當我們花時間去辨認自己輕微的不適、身體的痛,費工夫去緩解它們加諸己身的壓力,便是在肯定作用於我們內的另一股力量──向那被賜予我們的生命說「是」的力量,願意善用這生命來讚頌並服事那位賜予者的一股力量。

我們很幸運,身體的痛就像散佈在全身各處的微小聲音,小小的聲音提醒我們注意那股正在吞噬我們的晦澀毀滅勢力,小小的聲音怯怯地建議我們暫停一會兒,省思那居於我們身體內的生命力,以及我們可以選擇讓它結果實的方式。因著我酸痛的背和乾澀的眼,我是有福的……


翻譯/張令憙 繪圖/笨篤





本文亦見於2009年11月號《人籟論辨月刊》

2009_11想閱讀本期更多精采文章,請購買本期雜誌!

您可以選擇紙本版PDF版

海外讀者如欲選購,請在此查詢(訂閱全年份

Saturday, 24 October 2009

園林和苦海

中國園林通常是由希冀逃避公務煩憂的仕宦建造的,就此而言,可以將之視為一方夢土、烏托邦之鄉,或一座冥思的迷宮……園林雖是如此寧謐沉靜,卻是立基在諸多煩憂勞苦上。然而,最重要的是,園林是一個生命體,由洞壑、水脈和林景建構而成。


幽微隱蔽的洞壑
先來談談洞壑……園林是一處幽微隱蔽的所在,藉由內部間隔,無限擴張範圍。這些間隔包括阻斷視野的小丘、步道沿途的圍牆,和環繞亭閣的間壁;而間壁又被花窗、洞門和無數精細鏤洞所穿透,遊人得以用空間和視覺重建風景,分隔出一方新天地……園林實際佔據的空間必定小巧玲瓏──曲徑幽壑將園林拓展至無限,擴張至靈魂的界限。

洞壑意味著有路徑尾隨。窗洞門戶將園林逐漸揭露於感官之前,猶如畫家的手審慎而驕傲地展開卷軸,展示他如何賦予磅礡瀑布、山腰小路、蒼松和雲海生命……園林確實是一幅卷軸,一個微縮的世界,隨著我們的步伐和奇想開展、擴大。漫遊者從這個窗口轉向另一個,進入幽靜竹林,經過隨著微風清吟的芭蕉,然後移向模仿山崖的奇石、頂端掩蔽的小丘、飛簷一角,或是純粹傾訴空曠的天空缺口……透過無數洞壑,園林為遊人複製出千千萬萬的雙眼和幻想,直到視線凝聚成驚鴻一瞥,窺見園林與其主人的內在秘密和雙重靈魂。


水為園林之命脈
布滿洞壑的園林有水脈流穿,隨著生命、呼吸和季節更迭流轉……水使園林活動起來。匯集成池塘,並分流成內部溝渠。水使園林的玲瓏奇石化為崇山峻嶺。那巍然山勢可能就是園林主人和建造者在造訪名山時讚嘆不已的風景,其後在私人領地上重現奇觀。遊人跨上小橋,渡過岸邊綴有點點綠意的微縮汪洋……一縷清香伴隨瀑布隱隱水聲細語呢喃──園林吞吞吐吐地道出介於白晝和陰影間的幻夢。水畔遍佈清幽樹蔭和代表岸邊的圓石,連成一串,宛如一串島嶼。笛聲、鳥鳴徒留無影的蹤跡……

林園因水脈而生,由是展形,幻化為臥龍、麒麟,或不知是人是神的道家仙長。林園形體由高丘塑成,謙沖假山化池塘為汪洋,溝渠成大川,院落化為大陸。園體也是林徑,襯以花木,訴說林園與主人的共同特質:克己、堅毅和長壽……

然而……即使涵括了一個人的整體精神,別忘了園林仍然很迷你──雖然一沙一世界,但沙粒仍是微不足道的沙粒……而歷來中國園林經常毀壞、焚掠、再造、重現……最終,園林或許就像扁舟,引領我們緩緩划向變滅之海,哀樂人生得以片刻忘憂……

攝影/笨篤 翻譯/林天寶 




本文亦見於2009年11月號《人籟論辨月刊》

2009_11想閱讀本期更多精采文章,請購買本期雜誌!

您可以選擇紙本版PDF版

海外讀者如欲選購,請在此查詢(訂閱全年份



Tuesday, 20 October 2009

Taiwan’s hidden ground of love

Within the last 17 years, I have experienced many facets of the Catholic Church in Taiwan.

I first settled within the protected grounds of Fu Jen University, where lots of priests, brothers and religious sisters were working. Later on, with much joy and gratitude, I experienced many times the hospitality of aborigine parishes, especially in Hsinchu and Hualien dioceses. I was moved by the sufferings and weaknesses of the social environment in which faith was growing, as well as by the vitality and freshness of its expressions. I delivered Sunday mass for a very small parish in downtown Taipei for eight years, where I am also familiar with the powerful parishes of Tien Educational Center and Holy Family. I met with Filipino communities in Hsinchu, with small local communities in Taichung and Kaohsiung, with students’ chaplaincies and social advocates, doctors and workers, faithful Catholic families from generations on, to young converts.

It is true, however, that my work has had more to do with cultural and intellectual apostolates, meeting society at large, publishing, writing, researching, and debating in the conditions that are those of the cultural market – and this gives me a knowledge of the Taiwanese Church which is less intimate than that of many priests. Still, this double experience – looking at the Church from within and considering it from the society where I work - gives me, I believe, a few insights that I would like to share today.

First, I have seen the Taiwanese Catholic Church grow in quality, if not in quantity. From 1992 on, I have seen more and more laypeople following formation in theology and spirituality, enriching their prayer life, and addressing social challenges. I have seen a Church more diverse in its cultural and political opinions and in the ethnic origins of its leaders. I have seen a greater sensitivity to global challenges and to other Asian churches.

Second, I have the impression that the Church is still relying too much on the clergy, that the latter is still reluctant to abandon its power, and that not enough space is given to the creativity and diversity of Christian groups. More creativity and freedom are indispensible if the church wants to grow – or even simply to live more happily.

Third, I have been struck by the role played by individuals when they dare to play the role they feel called to fulfill. For instance, when layman or religious individuals decide to work toward more interaction between Taiwanese and Filipinos believers, to care for prisoners, or to develop aboriginal liturgies, he or she is quickly able to leave a mark, and often a deep one. So, what we need first and foremost are responsible, decisive individuals, anchored in a life of prayer, with a clear conscience of their gifts. We need individuals who work with tenacity and audacity to the realization of a goal that they deem to be meaningful.

Fourth, the defects of the Church are often the ones of society at large. For instance, obsession with finances and with so-called “management” (often poorly done), along with a hierarchical structure of decision, are not shortcomings proper to the Church. Rather, they reflect how much the Church remains embedded in the values of the society she is called to evangelize. The Church is still not counter-cultural enough…

Is there an antidote to such limitations? In a word, more love - and thus more freedom. “Love, and do what you wish,” used to say Saint Augustine. I think that he meant the following: someone who deploys their power of love is able to see not only the problems of the situation they are engaged in or of the people to be dealt with, but is able to see deeper than such limitations. The individual discerns in the heart, the possibility of an awakening, sees a flame - a very feeble flame maybe, but a flame that is never extinguished – and does what he or she thinks best, guided by this feeble light of the flame in the obscurity of the present. Clever people clearly perceive defects and shortcomings around them. Loving people see beyond such shortcomings, though they might discern them and suffer because of them.

Eventually, what will make the Taiwanese Church grow and bear fruits will be to go again and again to the “school of the heart.” Let us make “apostolic planning” if we have to do so. Let us build institutions. Let us work on formation…but let these tasks all be irrigated by pure love. A love so free and so joyful that the persistent weakness of the Catholic community in Taiwan will not be for us a source of desolation and worries, but rather a call to love even more from the well of an even freer heart.

Photo by B.V. - Tafalong, 2008


Thursday, 01 October 2009

Embroidering the Earth

The performance of rituals can be seen as an embroidery, as a sacred cloth weaved by the dance, as a work that is offered to the gods, so that they may grant you the grace of survival and renewal. Today, the construction of the new house calls for a ritual. A priest-shaman of the Qiang (duangong) turns towards the altar of the household (every household has an altar in the corner of the main room of the house, facing the door. The altar and the area around it are loaded with taboos). The god of the household and the ancestors, the kitchen god, the god of the threshold are all invoked, so that they may give their blessings. The demons are driven away one after another, especially in the kitchen, a most dangerous place: in the kitchen we deal with fire, with flesh and with plants – at stake in the kitchen is personal and collective welfare…

The goat skin drum is the main ritual instrument of the duangong. It must be very carefully dried over a fire, even more so when it has already served to expel many demons, which have made it wet and depleted some of its efficiency. The Qiang say that they do not write and do not own sacred books because their first shaman had seen all his books eaten by a goat while he was asleep; the drum manufactured in the skin of the goat he killed afterwards, concentrates the efficiency of the sacred books that the Qiang do not possess…

The traditional word for shaman-priest (“duangong” is of Chinese origin) is “pi” or “bi” – a word found in many Tibeto-burmese languages for designating the performers of religious rituals. Though Qiang religion much differs from that of the Liangshan Yi people at the southern edge of the same Tibetan corridor, Qiang “duangong” and Yi “bimos” do share a common inheritance.


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Saturday, 05 September 2009

谎言文化中的诚实信仰

本文为节录,完整内容请见2009年10月号《人籁》月刊


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「一切隐藏的事都会被揭发;秘密的事也会被泄露。因此,你们在暗中所说的话会在光天化日之下被人听到;你们在密室中的耳语也会在屋顶上给宣布出来。」
~ 《圣经.路加福音十二:2—3》
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大约30年前,我曾前往瑞士的苏黎士,有天接待我的神父有事情,便让我自己在市区四处参观。我本来想搭公车到某处,却发现一张公车票居然要一瑞士法郎。当时,一瑞士法郎等于台币二十元,而在台湾搭乘公车不过要三元,二十元已经足够我吃两餐。因为在此之前,我都是和神父一起行动,公车票钱都由神父支付,我完全没想到坐公车居然要花那么多钱。

瑞士的公车并未配备查票员,司机也不会检查乘客是否买票。上车购票,全凭良心。为此我十分挣扎,一方面觉得票价实在太过昂贵,不想买票。一方面我也在想:「我身为一个牧师,不买票交待得过去吗?」就这样,我在公车站前反覆思量,这中间早已不知过了几班公车,等车的民众甚至忍不住问我,是否遭遇到什么困难。他们不知道,我的内心正陷入天人交战。

就在我足足考虑了两个钟头后,我做了决定:我不要买票。于是下一班公车到来时,我马上跑了上去。没想到才刚站好,就发现眼前标示写著,未买票的人被抓到,要罚一百倍票价。我吓了一跳,立刻匆匆下车。后来我跟神父提起这件事,神父告诉我:「还好你下车,你要是没买票被抓到,隔天苏黎士报纸头版新闻就会是『台湾来的牧师坐车不付钱被抓』」

后在我在维也纳台湾同乡会的聚会中,与旅奥的台湾朋友说起这个故事,没想到几乎所有人都笑了起来,他们告诉我:「牧师,我们也是来了大约半年,才学会买票。」原来,奥地利坐车买票的方式也与瑞士相同,多数台湾人初到此地时,都坐覇王车,直到半年后「才感到羞耻」。
回想起这件事,我觉得这种不诚实的文化和我们的教育、生活文化有很大的关系。


从小教你骗到大
在台湾,我们称工作为「骗吃(台语)」,如果有人称赞对方:「你这份工作不错喔!」时常会听到对方回答:「没啦,不过就是骗吃骗吃」。此外,我们常听到父母一谈起教养孩子的方法,便说:「囝仔嘛,就是要给他骗一下!」如果孩子哭了,也很少有父母愿意了解孩子哭闹的真正原因,反而时常会恐吓欺骗孩子:「再哭,警察就来罗!」甚至更夸张地还会说:「虎来了,别哭!」可是台湾哪来的虎呢?这不仅是恐吓孩子,用得还是虚假的谎言。

而孩童上学后,课本中同样充斥我们的国土不仅及于中国还扩大到外蒙古等不实内容。加上不论是家庭教育或是学校教育,整个台湾社会都是以功利为导向,注重成绩和竞争,几乎可以说没有任何一点诚实教育。于是多数的孩童在被欺骗的不安中成长,而后逐渐将欺骗、说谎视为理所当然。欺骗在文化中生根,人们就很难听到实话,人与人之间也会缺乏互信。

难以欺瞒上帝
西方文化却不同,自从罗马帝国将基督教国教化后,基督教信仰和欧洲文化及生活已密不可分。虽然这并不表示西方社会就不存在欺骗。但大体上他们比较重视诚实的价值。这是因为在基督教教诲中,诚实是相当重要的德目。

由于基督徒相信上帝无所不能、无所不知、无所不在,所以认为人的心思与所作所为都无法隐瞒上帝。记得有次我受瑞士白冷差会邀请前去访问,那时正值寒冷的雪季,某晚我和神父前往观赏歌剧,歌剧结束后神父开车载我回修院休息。我急著上洗手间,因此不断催促神父开快一点,可是即使经过没有红绿灯的十字路口,神父也必定停车再继续前进。我实在受不了了,忍不住抱怨:「根本没警察也没有人,为什么不直接开过去?」神父听完后居然生气了,他把车开到路边停下来,转头问我:「卢牧师,你是否相信上帝?」我当然回答是,他接著说:「那你怎么说没有人在看?上帝在看!」



想知道更多关于基督宗教的谎言观点,请看10月号《人籁》论辨月刊。

附加的多媒体:
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Friday, 28 August 2009

魔鬼在哪?

----------------------------------------
認出牠的面貌,喊出牠的名字,我們才能面對自己。
----------------------------------------

魔鬼的起源
魔鬼這個詞在西方世界流傳很久,一般認為它是由希臘文diabolos演化而來,原意是進讒言、中傷別人的「誹謗者」,或者就是「被告」。雖然在希臘與羅馬時代的神話裡,諸神有善有惡,但並沒有一個操縱一切的罪惡之神。因此,許多學者主張,在希臘與羅馬的信仰中並不存在魔鬼這種典型角色。

但是在後來歷史發展的過程中,魔鬼漸漸具體成形。主流神話裡,上帝與魔鬼互為對立,為了人的靈魂而戰鬥,魔鬼總是希望引誘人離開上帝,棄善從惡,終至淪落地獄。


有關魔鬼的警世格言
魔鬼的形象當然負面,而且令人心生畏懼,因此許多勸世格言以它為題,警告人們遠離誘惑、免於凶惡。我自己特別印象深刻的有兩個,一個是許多人朗朗上口的英文箴言:「魔鬼藏在細節裡」(The devil is in the detail.);另外一個則是流傳很廣的法文俗諺:「魔鬼總是匆匆忙忙的」(Le diable est toujours pressé.)。

這兩句諺語都很有意思,甚至可以為之對照。第一句呈現盎格魯•薩克遜文化裡重視規範、期待精準的價值,提醒我們重視生活實踐裡的每一個環節、每一個細節,「勿以惡小而為之」。

第二句在我看來非常拉丁風格。它企圖提醒的是不要急躁,不要讓自己陷入緊張、慌亂的情境,更不要在這種情境裡匆促決策,否則反而越陷越深,招致危險。所謂「事急無君子」,但是一旦便宜行事,不再嚴守君子之道,我們就漸漸走上魔鬼的路子了。


正視魔鬼,方能驅魔
這種藉由魔鬼的形象所做的提醒非常有意思,它反映出人類對於自身軟弱的不安與焦慮。不過矛盾的是,若能明確具體化這些焦慮,反而能削減原有的神祕壓力。因為當焦慮成為一種具象,有名字,面貌清晰可辨,我們就能面對它,或者面對自己。在社會學上,我們稱這種面對魔鬼的文化過程為「倫佩爾史提爾斯金原理」。倫佩爾史提爾斯金(Rumpelstiltskin)是格林童話裡的邪惡小妖精,它擁有不可抵抗的魔法,並且喜歡傷害小孩子。但是要是你認出它的名字,並且大聲喊出來,這個惡魔就會立刻喪失所有的力量,然後逃之夭夭。

魔鬼並不可怕,不願意面對魔鬼的心態才是恐懼的源頭。



本文亦見於2009年9月號《人籟論辨月刊》

2009_09想閱讀本期更多精采文章,請購買本期雜誌!

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Monday, 03 August 2009

A Portable Spiritual Compendium

I have read a good number of spiritual treatises and some of them have helped me tremendously along my spiritual path, however short and bumpy the latter might be. However, sometimes a mere few sentences suffice to inspire me. Today, I just feel like sharing with others a few things I believe in and experience, and doing so in as concise a fashion as possible. What follows might be clumsily expressed, and it remains provisional in essence – for insights change and grow along the way, and it is never easy to write about “spiritual” matters. I take this risk though… Of course, spiritual journeys are manifold and some of the convictions I share may not resonate with other pilgrims’ experience. Still, here is my own little spiritual compendium…

-Pursuing one’s spiritual journey means to develop a capacity for ‘inner attention’: attention to inner movements; attention to what happens in our life and the way we react to it; attention to the Scriptures that we are reading and tasting – and simply, attention, pure attention… Being attentive just means to remain in an expectant and listening attitude, even when “nothing happens.” Such a faculty goes with confidence, calm and perseverance.

-Spiritual progress also cannot but imply a “denying” of oneself, a struggle towards generosity and gratuitousness, a decision not to primarily focus on oneself. Yes, there is a kind of ”death to oneself” to accept, but paradoxically such acceptation goes with an accrued sense of life. Somehow, we do experience that it is this part of us that we let die which bears much fruit, and that this paradoxical joy cannot be taken away from us.

-Inner peace goes along the awakening of a dynamism that transforms our soul. The peace that comes from our surrendering to God’s love and simplicity makes the same sound as the waves of the sea running on the shore. There is something triumphal and majestic about it, something similar to what we feel when immersed in the interplay between the waves and the wind.

-There is a social dimension of our spiritual journey. The concern one feels for others, for one’s community, as the full awakening of humaneness in every human being is a fruit of our spiritual growth, perpetually purified and amplified. There is something within us that is striving and yearning for the fullness of unity and reconciliation - something in us as in the whole of humankind that experiences childbirth. Something that awakens, that nurtures and brings to fulfillment our spiritual fecundity.

-For me, sacramental life is a way of expressing and experiencing this communal dimension of spirituality. Entering deeper into the life of the Church is both a joyful and painful experience, as it means to become member of a community of sinners – and recognizing oneself as not being better than the other, while aspiring to be a force for renewal and communion. At the same time, being immersed in this communal body brings my spiritual being to completion and links me to all the other people, dead or alive, who have tried to walk the path of truth and freedom.

-I sometimes remind myself never to be afraid of or discouraged by weaknesses and failures: they will always help me not to rely on my own powers but, again and again, on the One who calls me to the fullness of His life. When I am weak, I am strong.

And it may all be so much simpler than I am able to express it…
 

Monday, 20 July 2009

看作一個人——麥可傑克森(Michael Jackson)

It’s good to be seen as a person, not as a personality.
-Michael Jackson at Grammy Awards, 1993




流行天王之死
跟很多人一樣,我是在麥可傑克森死了以後才開始特別注意他的音樂和表演,而在那之前,這個名字對我來說大概就是「超級巨星」和「月球漫步」的同義詞,是如雷貫耳但與自己無甚關聯的存在。因為沒什麼舞蹈細胞,我向來對舞曲不甚熱衷,從不曾是麥可傑克森的粉絲,而在此之外,我會想到的大概就只有〈We Are the World〉(中譯:四海一家)了。

因為他的死在世界各地造成極大的騷動,我出於好奇而花了相當時間在YouTube看他的影片,不止看歌曲MV和舞台表演,還找了許多他受訪或受獎的影片來看,然後我才了解——原來麥可傑克森所到之處是真的萬人空巷,原來真的是不折不扣的King of Pop(流行音樂之王),真的是全球最受歡迎的流行樂手,而且受歡迎的程度直到過世都無人能及(孤狗一下麥可傑克森,檢索結果竟高達數億條)。但也是如此盛名之累,他生前負面新聞纏身,如今連死後都不得安寧,不只八卦媒體炒作他的新聞,周遭親人朋友中似乎也有人消費他。如果說,一代流行天王盛年猝死和他難稱順遂的一生,讓許多識與不識的人寄予惋惜和同情,表現了人性中溫暖寬厚的一面,那麼,許多人因為他的死而曝露出人性幽暗陰微的那一面,則令人感到十分難過。


真相永難顯明
關於麥可傑克森生前的許多負面新聞,在他死後已經有許多人為他澄清,而我不由得去想,如果這一切都那麼容易解釋清楚,又為何一定要到人死之後才說?當然這世界上沒有完人,沒有必要因為麥可傑克森死了便去神格化他,但許多人面對這些「平反」消息的態度也著實令人反感。比方說,當年指控麥可傑克森性侵的人,現在承認當初是聽從父親的指示,貪圖鉅額和解金而去誣陷。若是這則消息屬實,那麼麥可傑克森一生最大的污點應該算是洗清了,但還是有很多人抱持懷疑,認為儘管他至今都還是全球慈善捐款最多的個人(約三億多美金),與戀童癖的形像實在不合,但「反正他有的是錢」,這只是他的表面工夫,親切溫柔的形象不過是他掩蓋變態人格的假面。

麥可傑克森是個怎樣的人,這世上只有極少數人真的知道。既然無從與聞,只要有足夠的證據,我其實樂於接受良善光明的一面,而不願故示清高,選擇去詆毀或鄙視另一個人的人生。有人認為,麥可傑克森的好壞與我無涉,就算我將他當成變態,最後證明是我錯了,又有什麼關係呢?我想,很多的錯誤可能都是由這樣漠然的態度開始的吧。因為不能同理另一個人同樣有血有肉的存在,於是在很多時候傷害和惡意的言語脫口而出,或是不假思索便暴力相向。大錯往往在小處鑄成。同樣的,很多人道的決定和大錯邊緣懸崖勒馬的覺悟, 也常只起於一個小小的、同理他人的念頭。


偽善與假清高的謬誤
後來我注意到,對麥可傑克森的生平嗤之以鼻的許多人都自視甚高,深恐為名人說了一句好話,自己就會被目為盲從流行、沒有思想的隨俗者。有人說,麥可傑克森被這麼多人關切,只不過是因為他有名罷了,每天那麼多人死掉,有誰關心?我想,確實,這世上多數的人是默默無聞死去的,許多人的死甚至根本無人知曉關切,當然很令人感嘆,但這並不表示「轟轟烈烈」死去的人就應該被輕視。只要不是危害他人而獲得,名利本身並不是罪過。我們當然可以說,關心麥可傑克森之死的人已經太多了,我要把我的時間跟精神拿去關心更多的人,但以此為理由而對麥可傑克森表示輕蔑,卻很難說不是偽善和假清高,因為這兩種態度並不衝突。確實,試圖由正面角度來評價人事物,與愚蠢地一昧相信他人,很可能只有一線之隔,但抹煞他人的人生並不能證明自己能夠獨立思考、不會道聽盲從,在很多時候,反而是勇於說出簡單明白的感受,才證明了自己有獨力思考的能力(或許可說是與「國王的新衣」異曲同工吧)。


天才有其代價
昨天和一個朋友談起了這些,這位老於世故的朋友對我的看法表示同意,但同時也說,一個人不能永遠都期望自己青春年少,到了五十歲還執著於勁歌熱舞,老是想當Peter Pan;麥可傑克森大可在更早以前就選擇一個不一樣的人生。這番話讓我想了很久,最終讓我有所領悟。我相信不論對任何人來說,這都是一個可以也很值得努力的目標,不過這樣的人生態度在某些人身上比較容易實現,在某些人身上卻很困難,而我認為麥可傑克森不幸剛好是後者。

麥可傑克森年僅五歲就被迫要當個大人,從此舞台就是他的人生,聚光燈下就是他的位置。因為被剝奪了童年,他反而沒有辦法脫離童年,有一部分永遠是個小孩。此外,終其一生,他沒有見過別種生活的可能,他的人生就是表演表演表演,人生還「可以」是什麼樣子,他大概無從想像,或者說,讓他日後可以朝向別的方向努力改變人生的基礎,根本很早就從他的人生被抽離了。再者,要一個像麥可傑克森這樣在歌唱和舞蹈方面有著集中性天才的人,將精神和注意轉向其他方面,應該是件極其困難的事。創作當然會帶來喜悅快樂,但高度的才華也是一種精神和肉體的負擔,很多時候甚且阻隔了一個人注意其他的可能。

總之,天才有其代價,而上帝總是公平,「等價交換」似乎真的是人生定律。


擁有與匱乏同樣感謝
過去我常感謝自己所擁有的一切,但麥可傑克森的死讓我了解到,那些沒有的東西也同樣值得感謝。此外我也想到,其實我們在每個不論是好是壞或不好不壞的人身上,都同樣可以看到自己的一部分,問題只在於是否有去看的意願。我們每個人都是同樣的物質所造就,受同樣自然律的規制,即便天資各有不同, 但對所有人來說,人生都是持久的挑戰,我們終生都要與自己好壞參半的人性共生甚且對抗,在這個意義上來說,對於麥可傑克森在〈Heal the World〉(中譯:拯救世界)〉裡面的某一句歌詞,其實不難感同身受:

In my heart, I feel you are all my brothers......
在我心中,我感覺到你我都是兄弟


攝影|Sjors Provoost




原文轉載自
Maan han?(什麼呢)





Monday, 29 June 2009

「免費」不是關鍵

推廣博物館,關鍵不在「入場票價」,而是在「教育」。

附加的多媒體:

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