Erenlai - Fang-Yu Shi (石芳瑜)
Fang-Yu Shi (石芳瑜)

Fang-Yu Shi (石芳瑜)

Shi Fangyu. Formerly translator, now primarily creates her own works which are found in newspaper supplements, magazines and blogs. Former winner of the China Times prize in literature, the Lin Rongsan prize in literature, the BENQ Truth, Purity and Grace first prize etc. 

文字工作者。曾任譯者,目前以創作為主。作品散見報紙副刊、雜誌、部落格。並曾獲時報文學獎、林榮三文學獎、BENQ真善美首獎……等。

Friday, 22 January 2010 00:00

書評:冷眼看謀殺

推理小說的受害者有八百萬種死法,《脫罪》一書裡所寫的,便是死狀極難堪且無辜的一種:被人誤打至血肉模糊而死。

 

讀來可怕嗎?推理小說有各式各樣的寫法,然而絲帕克卻將如此殘酷的事寫得極輕鬆,甚至可笑,大有一種「冷眼看謀殺,板著臉說笑話」的英式黑色幽默。

 

也正因為作者站在一種抽離事件的敘事高度,讀者才能輕鬆地閱讀這樣一個荒誕、殘酷的事件,並和作者一樣冷靜地思考謀殺案背後的問題。

 

這樣的英式冷酷幽默,倒不獨屬絲帕克作品所有。好比近幾年另一位頗受歡迎的英國影星賽門‧佩吉(Simmon Pegg)所編演的《終棘警探》(Hot Fuzz)中,也有類似但更誇張搞笑的趣味。

 

 

 

 

 

 

事實構築想像

 

「真實的生活永遠比想像更大膽!」這是神探福爾摩斯在短篇偵探小說《紅髮者聯盟》裡的一句話。而事實的確如此。看看《壹週刊》裡的社會新聞,也真夠嗆的了。《脫罪》便是以真實故事為基底,再由絲帕克加入角色,發展出想像的情節。

 

故事發生在1974年11月,英國貴族魯坎七世伯爵宅邸,發生了殘暴的保母凶殺案。當時的魯坎七世因不滿妻子於公堂上暴露他殘暴的一面,奪得小孩的監護權,更讓他已然飄搖的經濟狀況再添一筆龐大的贍養費支出,憤而決心在夜黑風高的夜晚殺妻。不料魯坎七世非但錯認當晚並未休假的保母,誤殺保母後,更失手讓重傷的妻子逃出地下室求救。

 

案發後,伯爵迅速知會母親和好友們,旋即失蹤。一紙通緝令就這樣懸宕超過三十年,直至1999年,英國警方才宣佈魯坎七世已死的消息。但魯坎七世的遺體卻不但從未被發現,據報他還曾多次現身世界各地,尤以中非為多。

 

小說的起端,便是從下落不明的魯坎七世現身於一家心理醫師辦公室開始。妙的是,一開始就有兩個人自稱魯坎七世,而書中的心理醫師希德嘉最早也不叫希德嘉――她原是個窮學生,無意中發現可以利用經期大量出血,假冒「聖痕使徒」藉此斂財,東窗事發後逃到法國,才化名為希德嘉.

 

控訴階級之惡

 

以騙徒開場的小說,一開始就讓人覺得懸疑又有趣,彷彿抱著一桶爆米花看喜劇片的心情,沖淡了命案的血腥味。而文字裡流露的輕鬆,其實也恰如其分地反映凶手玩世不恭的心態:魯坎七世認為自己是貴族,可以為所欲為,沒人可以把他怎麼樣。逃亡時他照樣保持只吃羊排和燻鮭魚的習慣,也不喬裝易容,只找了一個容貌體型和他相似的人當替身。

 

更怪的是,孤身逃亡的魯坎七世居然一逃就是三十年之久,其間原因何在?合理的揣測當然是有人暗中隱匿並資助他,而這些人是誰?《脫罪》的小說主題即在於此。

 

這本小說的英文書名Aiding and Abetting是法律用詞,意思是「你雖然有不在場證明,但你可能是幫助犯或是教唆犯」。絲帕克冷眼控訴的,不單是魯坎七世這個殺人犯,還有那一群幫助他、資助他,充滿階級意識的朋友。

 

 

人間大惡之源

 

但絲帕克並沒有用任何說教或是主觀的描述,來刻畫這些人的嘴臉,反而藉由對話來表現。書中魯坎伯爵並不覺得自己殺害保母有何大錯,他甚至說:「若真像我想的一樣打到的是我老婆,就絕對不會有這麼多血。那血真多。……下等人就是不一樣,血還真會流。一直忘不了那血!流得到處都是!一灘灘,跟水窪一樣。

 

另外魯坎的好友們接受警方詢問時,也曾經這樣回答:「唉呀!好的保母現在很難找欸!」這類反應突顯上流社會自以為是的優越感,以及他們對出身「低下」之人的輕蔑對待,毫無同情與反省,這才是最可怕也最可惡之處。而絲帕克對此不露痕跡的冷調處理方式,正是這本小說最高明之處。

 

基督教裡所說的「七罪」,「驕傲」往往是最可怕的一種。而驕傲推展到極致,便產生納粹主義、法西斯主義,這些正是人間大惡之源。

 

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《脫罪》(Aiding and Abetting
絲帕克(Muriel Spark)著‧宋偉航譯
校園書房出版
2009年8月
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本文為節錄,完整內容請見
2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

No68

想進知道更多關於絲帕克的寫作技巧,請購買本期雜誌!

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Thursday, 30 June 2011 00:00

書評:中年少女的鎮魂歌,《我是許涼涼》

我是許涼涼,今年三十八歲。我想我剛剛被甩了,不過我懷疑我可能還沒接受這件事。

 

 

Friday, 04 March 2011 17:21

The Wushe Incident, 80 years on

“My people are being forced into too much labour work, causing great anger amongst them.
After the incident the two of us were captured by our people, we cannot do anything, we must go now…”

Suicide note written by Ichiro Hanaoka (Dakis Nomin) and Jiro Hanaoka (Dakis Nawi)

Foreign rulers

Every foreign ruler who once governed Taiwan had to face the problem of governing the indigenous people. In the time of the Qing government, the Hans were not only developing the land of the plains, but they were also developing the hill and mountain areas. To prevent the indigenous people from human-headhunting, the Qing government would setup mountain-pass-defences (building lookout-posts and sending people to guard them). At the same time, the Qing government were also recruiting tenant-farmers to develop land, often transcending the territory of the indigenous people, making their living space smaller. Armed conflicts between the Hans and the indigenous people became inevitable.

The Qing government imposed an isolation policy on the indigenous people when they were governing Taiwan. In the 61st year of the Kangxi Emperor, after the “Cishan Zhu Yi-gui incident”, the government banned the Hans from entering the mountain area.

In the time of Qianlong, plain resources gradually depleted as a result of Han development, the living space of the plains was getting smaller and smaller. The Qing government adopted the “To protect the indigenous people and their wealth” policy, banning Han from tenanting and selling the lands of indigenous people. However, even with this policy in place, the indigenous people were still losing their land continually invaded by the Han, causing regular conflict between the two sides.

When the Japanese began governing Taiwan, about 35 000 indigenous people had been “converted” or “half-converted” into Han and there were about 112 000 – 113 000 indigenous people still living in the mountain area. The ideology behind governing the indigenous people at the time was similar to how white American settlers invaded and occupied the lands of the Indians - the “civilised” people assume the right to develop the lands of the “uncivilised” people, rationalising the action of taking resources from the mountain area. To govern the indigenous people, the Japanese government would arrange marriages between Japanese and indigenous people, in an attempt to lessen the hatred the indigenous people had for the Japanese. The Japanese government encouraged police officers who were working in the mountain area to marry daughters of the indigenous people’s chieftains. However, after these police officers returned to Japan, they often left their wives behind, or even induced them into prostitution in Japan and Taiwan.

Conflicts due to politically-motivated marriages

There were both happy and unhappy cases in this type marriage. An example of a fortunate case would be Taimu, who became the wife of the prestigious head of the Wushe police branch after her Japanese husband Satsukai Tasukumasu was promoted to the position. Another example would be Beika Leida, the daughter of the chieftain of Maliba tribe. Beika Leida married to Shimoyama Jihei and had two sons and two daughters. Shimoyama Jihei, however, remarried a Japanese girl and returned to Japan. He left Beika Leida and the four children behind in Taiwan. Luckily for Beika Leida, the Japanese arranged for her to work in a local police station so she had something to do for a living. In contrast, Tewas Rudao, the younger sister of Mona Rudao, wasn’t as lucky. Tewas married Kondou Gisaburou who was later re-assigned to the police station in Hualien Harbor. Although Kondou Gisaburou brought Tewas Rudao with him to Hualien Harbour, he died in a mission falling down a valley. Tewas returned home to Mahepo Community by climbing across numerous mountains. She later married a man from her tribe and bore two daughters, but unfortunately they both died later. The Japanese never looked after Tewas from this time onwards. For Mona Rudao, what happened to his sister would make him anti-Japanese, a factor in the rise of the Wushe Incident later on.

Twenty days before the Wushe Incident (in the morning of year 1930 October 7th), two Japanese police officers - Katsumi Yoshimura and Okada Takematsu, were walking past the house of Mona Rudao, the chieftain of the Mahepo tribe. At the time, a youngster of the Mahepo tribe, Daho Mona Rudao and a girl Rudao Bawan were holding a wedding ceremony. Members of the tribe came to celebrate the occasion by killing cows and sheep for a feast. The oldest son of Mona Rudao, Tadao Mona saw Yoshimura walking past, so he invited Yoshimura to come inside for a drink. However, Yoshimura saw Tadao was holding a piece of meat on his hand, stained with blood. He disliked Tadao’s “dirtiness” and assaulted Tadao with his cane. For an occasion that was meant to be joyful, Tadao got angry and together with Mona Rudao’s second oldest son Bassao Mona, pushed Yoshimura to the ground. Mona Rudao later brought his two sons to apologise to Yoshimura by offering him a gift of wine; however, Yoshimura did not accept the apology, he told Mona Rudao that the incident has already been reported to higher Japanese authorities and that Mona Rudao and his two sons would receive punishment soon.

When the Japanese were governing Taiwan, not only were there tragedies caused by the arranged marriages, many construction works were also being carried out which forced the indigenous people into labour works; if they refused, then they would be severely punished. The Japanese police officers were forcing the indigenous population to provide their construction labour for free. The Japanese government continued to open up new construction works and set up police stations at every tribe and fortified point, as well as building roads, suspension bridges, Japanese dormitories and so on. During the construction period, the Japanese did not take into consideration whether it was the hunting or the harvesting season for the indigenous people, the Japanese blindly forcing them to continue construction. This stirred dissatifaction amongst the indigenous people and further built up their resentment towards the Japanese.

 

The break out of the Wushe Incident

On October 28th of every year, the Japanese government house would hold a shrine festival to commemorate Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa. October 27th was the day when Wushe would hold its annual athletics festival. About two hundred Japanese attended the festival; police officers were unarmed on that day.

While the Japanese national anthem was being played at the festival, the indigenous people, who were in the area preparing for an ambush, rushed into the sports venue and began killing the Japanese. The festival was turned hellish scene.

During the Incident, a Han shopkeeper - Liu Liang-tsai - who flaunted his powerful connections to bully others and had been named by the indigenous people as a “fake Japanese”, was killed as they vented their resentment. Another two Han were mistakenly slaughtered as they were wearing Kimonos at the time. The rest of the victims were Japanese. A total of one hundred and thirty-nine Japanese died in the incident and seven police stations were burnt down.

The Wushe incident stunned the Japanese officials. The government sent out about four thousand police officers and troops using canons, aircraft and other weapons to attack the Wushe area. However, the Japanese were still unable to force the surrender of the anti- Japanese uprising. In the end, the Japanese adopted the “using indigenous people to fight against indigenous people” policy, encouraging and rewarding other tribes who did not participate in the Wushe incident to turn against those who did. Different tribes set about killing one another, causing great misunderstanding amongst the tribes.

The Japanese who survived the Wushe Incident became even more hostile against the surviving family members of the anti-Japanese indigenous uprising. In April of the sixth year of Showa (year 1931), the Japanese ordered the Atayal people who had been forced to join the Japanese army to slaughter a hundred and ninety-five surviving family members of the anti-Japanese indigenous people who were unarmed, and decapitated a hundred and one heads of these people. This event is known as the Second Wushe Incident.

In the eighth year of Showa, indigenous people found a human’s remains which was much taller than an average man, it was determined to be the remains of Mona Rudao.

 

The tragedy of the Hanaoka brothers

Cultural differences (the Japanese did not respect the customs of the indigenous people - such as face tattooing, the practice of “putting one’s hand on another’s shoulder and drink like brothers” and so on), together with the arranged marriages policy and forced labour upon the indigenous people, all contributed to this tragic slaughtering event. However, hatred doesn’t solve the problem, if there is a lesson to be learnt from this piece of history, it is that rulers have to be more respectful of those who are being governed.

In the Wushe Incident, every victim and their surviving family members have their own stories to tell. Among them, what happened to the Hanaoka brothers would probably be the most tragic of all.

The Japanese have always seen the Hanaoka brothers as a successful case of the indigenous people being “moralised”. The elementary school in Wushe normally only accepted Japanese students, however, the Japanese were trying to lasso and “civilise” the indigenous people, so they sent the Hanaoka brothers and others to Japanese schools to study.

Ichiro Hanaoka graduated from the training school at National Taichung University of Education. He became a level B security guard at the Wushe branch. Jiro Hanaoka graduated from the advanced course at elementary school in Puli, he was a guard in Wushe. Both Ichiro and Jiro accepted marriages arranged by the Japanese government.

Right after the Wushe Incident, there was a rumour that the incident was instigated by the Hanaoka brothers and they were accused of having betrayed the Japanese. After the Japanese regained Wushe, they found a suicide note outside Jiro’s house which was wriiten by Ichiro and Jiro ”We are leaving this world now. Our people are being forced into excessive manual labour, causing great anger. After the incident the two of us were captured by our own people, we cannot do anything, we must go now” The Hanaoka brothers, who received Japanese education, got caught in between the complex racial issues of the two sides. Ichiro and Jiro took twenty-one of their family members to Kotomi mountain where they committed suicide. Ichiro cut the throats of his wife and children before committing “harakiri” (putting a knife into his own stomach to commit suicide). Jiro and his family members adopted the traditional Atayal way of hanging themselves on a tree to commit suicide, only his Japanese wife lived. It is said that she did agree to die with the rest of the family, however, her husband Jiro convinced her to live on in order to protect the baby in her. His wife became the most important survivor and witness of the Wushe Incident.

Whenever there was a discussion on the Wushe Incident about the Hanaoka brothers in the past, different speculations would come up. Some suspected that the Japanese murdered the Hanaoka brothers and their family members and then made the murder scenes look like they were committing suicide. Some said that the Hanaoka brothers were on the Japanese side, while others said they were on the side of the indigenous people. Teng Hsiang-yang, a scholar of tribal history who found the widow of Jiro Hanaoka, stated that when Jiro was committing suicide, he was wearing the Japanese feather- constructed clothing inside with traditional Seediq Bale clothing on the outside and equipped with a Seediq Bale knife on his waist. After the widow saw the suicide scene of Jiro Hanaoka, she said: “Jiro must have so much he wanted to tell us.” She also said: “the Hanaoka brothers were on both the Japanese and the indigenous people’s sides, they died gracefully! Not only were they conducting themselves in such a way that they were able to face the Japanese who brought them up, but also their own people!” “They would not have died so gracefully if they were strongly leaning toward either the side of the Japanese or the indigenous people!”.

Translated from the Chinese by Jason Cheng. Illustration by Şirin Tanrıtanır

Friday, 25 February 2011 10:42

艋舺乞丐婆與台灣史懷哲

<清水照子和施乾的愛情故事>

「外婆過世後,子孫整理遺物時,意外發現一張日本男人的相片,才知原來那是外婆當年的未婚夫,是京都銀行家的富家公子。當時他的猛烈追求未擄獲外婆芳心,外婆反而逃婚來台嫁給外公。」

──洪子卿(清水照子的外孫)

Friday, 25 February 2011 10:42

艋舺乞丐婆與台灣史懷哲

<清水照子和施乾的愛情故事>

「外婆過世後,子孫整理遺物時,意外發現一張日本男人的相片,才知原來那是外婆當年的未婚夫,是京都銀行家的富家公子。當時他的猛烈追求未擄獲外婆芳心,外婆反而逃婚來台嫁給外公。」

──洪子卿(清水照子的外孫)

Sunday, 05 December 2010 17:00

霧社事件八十年

霧社事件發生距今已八十年。當年累積的種族怨恨皆已隨風飄散,但這場因政策指導下的婚姻悲劇,卻依然刻骨銘心。

「……族人被迫勞役太多,引發憤怒,所以發生這事件。我倆也被族人所捕, 任何事都不能做。……我等得去了。」

── 花岡一郎(拉奇斯.諾敏)、花岡二郎(拉奇斯.那威)所留之遺書

Friday, 29 October 2010 16:20

從安平追想起——十七世紀荷蘭人與平埔族的婚姻

「身穿花紅長洋裝,風吹金髮思情郎……想起情郎想自己,不知爹親二十年,思念想欲見,只有金十字,給阮母親做遺記,放阮私生兒,聽母初講起,愈想不幸愈哀悲,到底現在生亦死,啊,伊是荷蘭的船醫。」

Tuesday, 22 September 2009 00:00

書評:漩渦般人性迷宮

多數的讀者在閱讀《深紅》之前,大概都已從日劇中領教過野澤尚迷人的戲劇鋪排功力。無論是「戀人啊」、「水曜日的情事」,或是「冰的世界」、「沉睡的森林」等等,不管是婚外情或是命案,野澤尚總在這類緊繃的危險關係上,不斷堆高複雜性,再以小刀一層一層劃開人性,模糊了好人與壞人的界線,試圖以不同的思考與視角,探討真相存在的可能性。

正當觀眾陷入野澤尚的戲劇漩渦而不能自拔,他也同時挑戰小說的書寫。並且在2001年,以《深紅》拿下了象徵「作品能夠傳達時代氛圍」的吉川英治文學新人賞,繼戲劇類「向田邦子賞」最年輕得主的頭銜,摘下另一座文學桂冠。


 


 
 
藝高膽大的顛覆
《深紅》一開始就顛覆傳統推理小說的寫法,將龐大、血腥的命案以及「誰是凶手」,逕自拋擲在故事的起頭。更驚人的是,就在我們隨著野澤尚去拆解命案真相,深入受害者和加害人雙方遺族的內心世界時,現實世界裡,野澤尚竟選擇在人生顛峰,以自殺結束生命,丟給讀者更大的謎團。這使得在閱讀《深紅》時,不免有閱讀「遺書」的想像與恍惚,彷彿身邊圍繞著一個更複雜難解的推理案件。

當龐大命案橫在眼前,在這片血的「高潮」之後,《深紅》這本小說才開始進入真正的高潮──人性的探索:藉由受害者遺族和加害人遺族的成長過程,擴展因雙方不同性格所產生的命案餘毒層次。

如此一想,小說起頭就展開最血腥的場面,不免是作者「貼心」的設計了。因為先讓讀者措手不及地進入第一個高潮之後,便能呼吸順暢地,跟隨作者在書中所提出的更深刻人性問題與探求,體會更多與人性種種正面交手的高潮。

這樣的顛覆,顯現了野澤尚藝高膽大的寫作企圖心。接下來,他更拿出看家本領:人物的對位,以便一如照鏡般折射出不同的人性光影。


精采巧妙的對位
這樣的對位設計,相信野澤尚的日劇觀眾並不陌生。如書中導讀作者陳國偉所述:在「戀人啊」中他設計讓男女主角在婚禮前相遇而相戀,半年後竟成為鄰居,而繼續發展柏拉圖式的愛情,卻沒想到彼此的另一半間原來早有愛戀關係。而在「情生情盡」(註1)與「水曜日的情事」中,野澤尚都讓男主角因外遇而離婚,卻又在與情婦結成正果後,回頭尋找前妻重拾舊愛,發展出再一波的不倫關係,在妻子與情婦的身分轉換間,形成角色與關係巧妙的對位。

更有趣的部分,是我們可能發現:「戀人啊」那個主控欲強烈、執著,不斷於郵局放置情書的女主角(鈴木保奈美飾),其性格模式不正與「水曜日的情事」裡那個主動、主控且貼心的情婦(石田光飾)相同?這個在「水曜日的情事」讓男人難以招架、讓妻子痛苦的情婦,在角色與手段轉變之後,卻在「戀人啊」成了讓許多觀眾憐惜喜愛的角色。「好」與「壞」在此便完全模糊了。

這就是為什麼在這些看似浪漫或是刺激的愛情故事中,野澤尚總是讓觀眾看得不安穩――他似乎總是「不懷好意」地不斷追問:什麼是好?什麼是壞?什麼是善?什麼是惡?



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《深 紅》(しんく
野澤尚著‧王蘊潔譯
皇冠文化出版
2009年3月
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本文亦見於2009年10月號《人籟論辨月刊》

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