Erenlai - Economy and Environment 經濟發展VS環保意識
Economy and Environment 經濟發展VS環保意識

Economy and Environment 經濟發展VS環保意識


These materials assess changing trends in the economy and the environment, and how they impact on the future.

高唱經濟發展的同時,中國也看到它在生態環保上所面臨的挑戰。究竟要如何因應呢?當下的每個抉擇都牽動著未來的走向。

 

Wednesday, 05 March 2008

Deforestation in New Zealand

Over the past two centuries, intense deforestation has brought serious environmental changes in New Zealand. Agriculture is the first economic activity in New Zealand. The country depends heavily on international trade, and agricultural products account as the main export industry.“In the year to June 2007, dairy products accounted for 21% of total merchandise exports, and the largest company of the country, Fonterra, a dairy cooperative, controls almost one-third of the international dairy trade. Other agricultural items were meat 13.2%, wood 6.3%, fruit 3.5% and fishing 3.3%.”, The Department of Conservation of New Zealand says.

To be competitive on the European market for meat and dairy products, the government encouraged more clearance of the land and gave financial support to farmers to purchase fertilizers and enhance the soil fertility, until as late as the 1980’s, the Ministry for the Environment of New Zealand says. However, forest removal policy to establish agriculture settlements and the non-well regulated use of fertilizers was made over environmental consideration and produced long-term negative effects on the land. Humans’ impacts have been considerable and fast, and expansion of the agriculture is the major cause of these changes.

The Kyoto Protocol established in 2005 pushed the member countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions within a given timescale: a reduction to 5% below 1990 levels before 2012. These gases considered as “the accepted cause of global warming are generated by the burning of trees or the decomposition of most organic materials, which puts deforestation process as a cause of emission of greenhouse gases. On the second hand, as huge removers of carbon dioxide, forests need to be protected from fire and unnecessary destruction for alternative land use”, forestry insights website says.

However, in a country of 48 million sheep, for a population of 4.2 million inhabitants, cattle are the real owner of the land and farmers have a strong influence on the government’s policies. Sheep in New Zealand are raised for their wool and meat, and ‘Merino’ became a famous international clothes brand purchased by every second tourist in the country. This business made out of sheep wool, as well as the thousands of sheep I saw when I was driving through the New Zealand last month, made me think of ‘sheep’ as an emblem of the country.

But at the same time, I could not help but see hectares of wood being cut very drastically raw-by-raw, especially in the center of the North Island, where the highest percentage of the cattle is raised. Reasons to this exploitation are to create more agriculture settlements for pastoral farming. Nowadays, forests cover only 23% of the land of New Zealand, while it used to cover up to 80% before the first human settlements.

Last February 2007, Climate Change Minister David Parker and Forestry Minister Jim Anderson, announced through in a Press Release that the level of deforestation in New Zealand between 2008 and 2012 is expected to rise up to 40 million tons of carbon dioxide gas emission. Deforestation is the reason why the country will not be able to meet its Kyoto target. In an attempt to combat climate change, the government launched a deforestation tax in which ‘the polluter pays’.

It seems the government is taking decisions to make more responsible the polluters in the country but this tax applied to the forestry industry does not concern the farming sector. Indeed, the government promised not to put any restriction measures to agriculture in their gas emissions before year 2013. Hence, more and more people in forestry are tempted to go into dairying not to face their real costs, and need additional land clearance to raise their cattle.

Sustainable development being widely discussed, people are put in front of their responsibilities, and farmers are the center of a polemic in New Zealand for not bearing their true pollution quota. The government is struggling between meeting the targets of Kyoto while still further developing agriculture, the main sector of activity in New Zealand.

Besides taking alternative measures, I think there is a need to further introduce and promote sustainable ways for land use to farmers and the rest of the population. Additional education and training are needed to make people more aware of the damages caused by deforestation and the over-use of fertilizers. In this sense, the National Agroforestry System (USDA) in New Zealand, which “combines agriculture and forestry to create integrated and sustainable land-use systems”, could be of a great help. New Zealand has a strong basis to make these changes; it is a totally nuclear-free country where people struck me for being so environmental-friendly.


Websites:
The website of the New Zealand forestry industry resource: Forestry insights

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/Aurelie_Deforestation.swf{/rokbox}

Monday, 14 January 2008

Plastic bags of doom

【薛申昆 主述】
【柯蕾莉 採訪 撰文】【蔡函岑 翻譯】

中國是團結亞洲的縮影

薛申昆說:「在中國境內,五十多個民族共存共榮,少數民族保有自己的方言、文化傳統和宗教信仰。各民族都是這個大家庭的一份子;對內保有多元色彩,對外同屬一個統一的國家。」
問及「多元」與「統一」如何並存?薛申昆認為,多元與統一看似矛盾,統一的概念實則應從亞洲的教育向下扎根。「在中國這樣的泱泱大國成長,加上從小到大所受的教育,大國子民的概念早已深植於心。」薛申昆說。
討論到「亞洲身分」時,薛申昆表示:「我一直有強烈的中國意識,但是在法國人眼裡,我只是一個亞洲人。在法國住久了,我也逐漸認定自己只是亞洲人。」對薛申昆而言,「亞洲」一詞和佛教、儒家思想、用箸的飲食文化和黃膚色等特質可以畫上等號。亞洲文化的多元性,讓特性相近的國家親上加親。但儘管如此,亞洲各國都應該為建立亞盟貢獻心力。

中印兩國發展有助於建立亞盟

中國被喻為「世界工廠」。然而,薛申昆坦言,中國的經濟發展若未加以調控,自然環境遭受嚴重破壞。屆時,中國將成為「污染最嚴重的國家」。「中國需要建立一套制度以抑制過熱的經濟,並紓緩隨之而來的種種問題。」薛說。不論是超國家組織或是中國領軍的博驁亞洲論壇,皆能促進各國團結,同時提升亞洲各國的使命感。
薛申昆更認為,一個穩定的組織有如一顆定心丸,讓亞洲人面對西方勢力時更有自信。「中國與印度能起帶頭作用,凝聚亞洲力量。我希望中印兩國未來能和亞洲各國加強合作,帶動各國發展,建立更密切的多邊關係。」

扭轉西方對中國的負面印象

「在建構亞洲聯盟的過程中,中國務必要加強與邊疆各省的聯繫。」薛申昆也認為,中國會逐漸享有更高的國際地位。「任由一個共產政體領導亞洲發展,似乎有違西方人的原則。但是換個角度來看,中國人口數為世界之最,許多人民卻是文盲,因此中國必須要加強人民的素質。如果中國明天就轉為民主政體,反而是向後退步,必定造成混亂。」申昆也感嘆,西方媒體有意無意的醜化中國政府的形象。他舉例說:「法國媒體製作的中國紀錄片往往會抨擊貧窮問題與某些政府政策,這些媒體左右了法國人民對中國的觀感。」他認為,中國若能參與亞洲組織的建構,不但能起帶頭作用,更能夠扭轉西方人對中國的負面印象。

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/BeingAsian_Chinese.jpg{/rokbox}

Saturday, 01 December 2007

Anlong: a model sustainable and ecological village

The photos and the accompanying article are available for purchase on
Tale Image

{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/AnlongVillage.swf{/rokbox}

Thursday, 15 November 2007

Taiwan's first organic farmer's market

[dropcap cap="W"]hen he returned to Taiwan with an American Ph.D. and began teaching agriculture at National Chung Hsing University in Taichung, Ray Tung never guessed he would go on to establish Taichung’s first organic farmer’s market. He taught his students as his professors had him — that agricultural chemicals in the appropriate amounts do no harm. [/dropcap]A student came up after class one day to ask why he wasn’t considering that even if applied in safe doses, those chemicals accumulate in the soil, the riverbeds, and even the human body — until they reach levels where they do cause harm. A farmer may apply herbicide to his orchard only twice a month. But that’s 24 times a year. This student was a farmer and invited Ray to come see his organic farm.
It turned out to be a big surprise. Ray saw that organic farming wasn’t just about putting no dangerous chemicals in the soil and the water and no poisons in the food supply and the body. It boiled down to an issue of basic integrity: Do we care more about profit or about the health of the environment and the value of human life?

Thus began Ray’s decade-long odyssey to the many small-scale organic farms in the mountains and in the countryside all around the city of Taichung in central Taiwan. He got to know the farmers, learned from them, and began buying and using their products. At that time an organic trend was sweeping the agricultural market in North America, Europe, and even, to a lesser extent, Taiwan. Upscale consumers demanded farm products without poisons and large-scale agri-businesses began supplying them to supermarkets.

In Taiwan small-scale organic farmers didn’t really benefit from this. Even though their locally-grown produce was superior in freshness and quality to what the big companies delivered to supermarkets, these farmers didn’t have the marketing skills or the distribution networks to compete. Ray got a sense that in this he might step in and make a difference. He suggested setting up an organic farmer’s market in Taichung. The farmers said it wouldn’t work.

Everything Ray knew about organic food and the value of organic practices for the environment and for human health he learned from the small farmers, not from any teachers, professors, or agricultural experts at any of the universities he’d attended. He saw these farmers as a resource not just to provide chemical-free food products to upscale urban consumers — but to educate the broader public as they had him about an entire way of life that was wholesome and regenerative to the individual and the rural landscape. The big businesses supplying the supermarkets, in contrast, were just concerned with turning out an agricultural product as cheaply as possible that fit the organic specifications. It was Ray’s genius to see that the unique advantage of the small farmer would present itself in the face-to-face setting of a farmer’s market; and the farmers, in such a situation, could become an agent for change. He never gave up on his dream of the organic farmer’s market. But for ten years it didn’t happen.

Then, last Fall while on sabbatical in Tampa, Florida, he went around looking at farmer’s markets in Florida. They got him all fired up. When he returned to Taiwan his mind was decided. He begun reaching out to the organic farmers to let them know he was going ahead with that old dream of his. He invited them to a preliminary meeting to work out the specifics.

At one farm, the farmer’s wife was furious at him. “Because of you my husband turned this onto an organic farm,” she lashed out. “Now look at us. We’ve become a poor family. The neighbors ridicule us.”
“She’s going to divorce me,” the farmer confided sadly to Ray. “The neighbors have got these ideas into her head. She says I’ve betrayed the family for some stupid idea of mine that doesn’t make any sense.”

Ray invited them both to the meeting. To his surprise the wife came. Almost sixty farmers and their families were in attendance. The mix included vegetable farmers, fruit farmers, tea farmers, and rice farmers. Ray noticed the man’s wife listening in surprise as the stories poured out on all sides.

Farmers told how they initially turned organic after seeing their parents poisoned and crippled for life by farm chemicals. Taiwan’s small farmers in years past were uneducated people of low socio-economic status. They didn’t know better than to trust the fast-talking salesmen who came around promoting agricultural chemicals. Then, even when it became apparent that the chemicals did real harm, farmers kept using them because they knew of no alternative.

Other farmers poured out their stories about how organic farming takes time compared with conventional agriculture because it involves improving the quality of the soil and the environment. It may take a few years just to get started. They told how it’s not just about the immediate financial reward, but about leaving the land and surroundings better for the next generation than the last generation left it for us.

There was talk how in rural Taiwan there used to be all kinds of snakes, frogs, fish and birds. At night, a naked light bulb attracted a cloud of moths, beetles and flying insects. No more. So many living things had been poisoned and are not seen anymore. Taiwan has the highest rate of liver cancer in the world. In places the island is turning into a wasteland. It was once named for its beauty.

As the meeting broke up Ray happened to catch sight of the man’s wife and could see the change in her and in the way she was with her husband. She laughed and smiled and had made lots of new friends — individuals that unlike her ignorant neighbors could make her understand what her husband was trying to do and why.

Ray saw that this dream of his wasn’t just about marketing these farmers’ fresh organic produce in Taichung, and it wasn’t just about educating city dwellers to a new and more wholesome lifestyle. It was perhaps most importantly about community building. He scheduled a succession of other planning meetings. Then, in April he sent out the final invitations to join Taichung’s first organic farmer’s market. Of the initial sixty farmers, only thirty-three attended the opening of the market in September.

A representative from one of Taiwan’s big agri-businesses approached Ray with a desire to be part of the market. If that company had a booth at the market they would staff it with salespeople hired just to sell vegetables, individuals who wouldn’t themselves have undergone the change in consciousness that occasions a shift to the organic lifestyle the small farmers had undertaken, sometimes at considerable expense to themselves and their families. Ray turned the big company down. It wasn’t what he wanted for the market. He wanted the people of Taichung to have the chance for a face-to-face encounter that might possibly let them see — organic food is not just about fruits and vegetables that are free of poisons. It’s not just about a product that meets organic specifications. It’s about a change in lifestyle, and a change in consciousness — a way of living that doesn’t damage the environment or other people and is wholesome all around.

These farmers had lived isolated lives on their small farms, tending their land and crops, largely out of contact with each other and any larger community. Now they arrive at the market early every Saturday morning, energetic and excited to see each other and connect with all the different people thronging the stalls, asking questions, and buying things. One really does get the feeling at the market that the farmers have come not just for the money, but to feel part of a larger community that cares about the same things they do.

Many Saturdays in the first early morning rush around 8 a.m., when the market is at its busiest, some farmers sell out. Instead of packing up to leave, they stay the whole rest of the morning, socializing with farmers at other booths, assisting them with the customers, answering questions, and sharing their enthusiasm about the wholesome way of life they’ve chosen, and its benefits.

The market is held on the campus of Taichung’s National Chung Hsing University. It peaks early, between 8 and 9, but goes on until noon. A walk among the stalls and a talk with some of the farmers is enough to give a whiff of hope that environmentally-ravaged Taiwan might yet be turned back into the pristine paradise it once was.

Ray is always there, walking from stall to stall, talking with everyone — a big smile on his face. It’s not many men who can say as he can, that their dream has come true.

(Photo by B. Stimson: Dr. Ray Tung, the founder of Taiwan’s first organic farmer’s market, which takes place every Saturday morning on the campus of Taiwan’s National Chung Hsing University in Taichung)


Monday, 08 October 2007

1949-2009 : A Sexagenary Cycle

Even if the PCC congress that starts on October 15, 2007 is supposed to debate on the issues that China will confront during the next five years, the real horizon might be the year 2009. In private conversation and even on the Internet, much is made of the fact that, from 1949 to 2009, sixty years, yes sixty, will have passed, which corresponds to a full calendar cycle (five times twelve years) in the Chinese tradition.
Beyond or behind astrological considerations, there might be something about it; the period that went from 1949 to 1979 had been one of political turmoil. The one that will have soon have covered the following thirty years perfectly corresponds to an economic development cycle, with steady (even extraordinary) growth and subsequent exhaustion of the model behind it. Indeed, the export-based Chinese model is now thwarted by its costs in terms of social and ecological degradation, demand for energy and raw materials, and international frictions. Since 2006, the direction is officially one of sustainable, “scientific” growth, but the contradictions abound that make necessary adjustments painful and contradictory.
Besides, 2009 will also correspond to the sixtieth anniversary of the separation between the Mainland and the Republic of China in Taiwan (two generations.) There are reports that the Chinese leadership wants at any price to harvest some political progress on the Taiwan issue before the end of 2009.
All might go well in China until the Olympic Games are over. Social, economic and political tensions might crystallize in the fall of 2008, as China prepares to enter the fateful year of 2009.
Within the Party itself many are the voices saying that the time is ripe for a political reform that would help the country to enter this sensitive period with a new impetus and horizon line. “Political reform” is indeed on the agenda, as it appears to the leadership a normal historical development. But it remains limited to a discourse on “participatory democracy” - basically more intra-party competition and some added dose of accountability, which does not respond to the dimension of the challenge. Likewise, the reform of the developmental model seems to be stalled. On the other hand, changes on the education and the health care fronts are indeed bringing improvement to the poorer part of the population, although so much remains to be done.
Confucius used to say that at sixty his ear was at ease with whatever he was hearing, meaning that he was receiving the truth as by intuition. It is to be feared that, as new China approaches the age of sixty, its leadership does not like much what its ears perceive and is not intuiting what is now to be done.

Attached media :
{rokbox}media/articles/dragon.jpg{/rokbox}

Monday, 20 August 2007

The Hualien County Butterfly Roost Association

The Association was established in 2004.
Because they like Hualien County so much, they have marshaled the natural resources to create an environment ideal for butterflies to live in and a place for public education. They plant flowers to attract butterflies and breed butterflies. To restore fertility to the land, they plant organic vegetables.
The Association hires local people to be trained as professional narrators and take people to experience the wonderful world.
The people in the Association work hard for preserving the lands and the waters of Hualien County. They want people to pay more attention on the world around them and communicate with nature.
People should get along well with nature and preserve it for their children.
The Association will keep on promoting the cycles of life and spreading the concept of ecology.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/05HualienButterflies.swf{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 25 July 2007

Social Ressources for China's Development

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 25 July 2007

China's Present Challenges -- 02

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 25 July 2007

China's Present Challenges--01

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 25 July 2007

中國森林

【謝靜雯 翻譯】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四點五就在中國。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中國只有百分之十八的林地,與百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林資
源貧乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林佔地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在過去五十年裡,中國歷經三次重大的森林濫伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大躍進時期(1958-1961)
為了用作土法煉鋼的燃料,將森林整座整座地砍伐殆盡。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命時期(1966-1971)
為了栽種玉米與小麥,將好幾公頃的森林坡地闢為耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

經濟改革的發端(八○年代初期)
農民獲准握有更多權責,他們因害怕政策可能再度生變,而將承包經營地上的樹木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在這三個時期裡,喪失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生態系統中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林為形形色色的動植物提供棲息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
調節水循環並且穩定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-樹頂攔截大氣的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸發而回到大氣中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分佈到土壤裡
-Erosion control
控制土壤沖蝕
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透過光合作用來幫忙調節氣候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物獲取太陽光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取與儲存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所產生的碳水化合物幫助植物成長
-release oxygen
釋放氧氣

The effects of deforestation
森林濫伐的結果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多樣性
-decreased habitat
棲息地減少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所損失
-species threatened with extinction
物種面臨滅絕的威脅

·Floods
水災
-flow of water changes
水流變化了
-runoff increases
逕流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水溫上昇

·Erosion
沖蝕
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水與風使沖蝕遞增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤沖蝕:因為有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中國面臨世界上最大的土壤沖蝕問題。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已佔據20%的地表,而且每年繼續以2,500平方公里的速度擴散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水災:中國在1998年遇到有史以來最慘烈的水災,造成3,600人喪生、五百萬戶住家毀於一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多樣化的喪失:世界瀕臨滅絕的物種有百分之十五至二十在中國,比世界平均值百分之十到十五還高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中國政府針對百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,強制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大規模的森林復育行動以及生物多樣化的保育計畫。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
結果,自1982到2005年,中國的森林植被淨增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中國的森林濫伐與水患:1998年的轉捩點
-Main areas of deforestation
森林濫伐的主要地區
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年間水災肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林與保護區
-Temperate desert
溫帶沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
溫帶大陸性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亞熱帶潮濕林
-Natural reserves
自然保留區
-Biological reserves
生態保育區

The trend
當前趨勢
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身為世界最大的木材進口國
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中國現在正將森林濫伐的現象驅往東南亞與西非

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_tw.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}

Friday, 20 April 2007

Panzhihua’s dam of gangue

The photos and the accompanying article are available for purchase on
Tale Image

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/Panzhihua2.swf{/rokbox}

Thursday, 19 April 2007

Mo’o Eucna: Ecology and Local Development

Mo’o Eucna is from the Alishan Zou Tribe, Saviki Clan, Shanmei Village, in Chiayi county. He is a researcher of vegetation and cultivation in the Danayigu region of the Zou tribal territory. Working for the Ecological Park. Studying at Shih-Xin University Graduate School for Social Development Studies. He is presently a police officer in the Saviki district of Alishan in Jiayi County.
With his village, he started to clean up the river on his territory and to protect the fishes within. The whole village participated in the endeavor. The river was at the start of an ecological park that generated income. This income is now used for tuition, pensions and other social purposes agreed upon by the villagers. Environmental protection, economic strategy and community building have been integrated into a whole.
“I grew up in a tribal region, influenced by both the traditions of Zou culture and by the foreign Catholic missionaries. In my younger years I wanted to become a priest and hang a cross on my chest, but by twenty years old I wanted instead to carry a policeman’s gun at my hip. Instead of hearing confessions in church I was hearing the confessions of criminals without any power to decide on the outcome.
After I returned to work in Alishan, I participated as a local resident in the establishment of the Danayigu Ecological Park. At the same time I studied diligently the Zou language and on my own researched the plants in the region. As a result I realized it is impossible to taste the wine but once.”
Shanmei village (Chinese)

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/02_Wen_Yin_Jieh_ch.swf{/rokbox}{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/02_Wen_Yin_Jieh.swf{/rokbox}
Page 3 of 5

Help us!

Help us keep the content of eRenlai free: take five minutes to make a donation

AMOUNT: 

Join our FB Group

Browse by Date

« December 2019 »
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
            1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31          

We have 5486 guests and no members online