Erenlai - Image and Imagination 亞洲的想像花園
Image and Imagination 亞洲的想像花園

Image and Imagination 亞洲的想像花園

Artists teach us how to look at the world anew as well as into our own hearts. Here you will find a selection of artworks and art criticism that goes transcends the spectrum of fashionable trends. In this section we also feature a series of guided tours of the site, showing our best features!

從古至今,亞洲的創作力源源不絕。亞洲人的眼界究竟觀察到什麼與他方不同的事物呢?這裡刊登的藝文創作與評論不是遊竄在古老與後現代之間的一場秀,而在呈現亞洲藝文多元的文化交融。這些文章將帶領我們以新意探究世界,以真摯凝望內心。

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

掏空

内在与外在之间的停格,请欣赏笨笃的诗作,

诗作 笨笃

-1-
La cérémonie
La cérémonie du thé
S’épuise avec cette goutte.
Toi, dehors, près de la route,
Tu mets l’eau sur le brasier.

典礼

茶的典礼,
一滴一滴被饮尽。
你在外界在路旁。
拿水浇在炭火上。

-2-
Encagé
Dans la cage : un canari.
Bloqué dans la gorge : un cri.
Dans la nasse : un poisson pris.
Dans mon corps : mon c镢ur dépris.

掏空

笼子中,一只金丝雀。
喉咙中,哽住一声啼。
鱼篓中,一只鱼被抓。
肉身中,我心被掏空。

-3-
Sortir
Hors du creux d’où jaillit l’eau
Qui dit le son de l’écho ?
Hors du gosier de l’oiseau
Qui du chant crierait le mot ?

外界

空孔涌出的清泉,
谁说出回音的声源?
鸟儿喉咙的外界,
谁从歌声呐喊字句?

-4-
Feu d’artifice
Perdu parmi le corps de signes,
Resterai-je en ce tourbillon,
Ou rentrerai-je en l’embryon
Qui ourdit l’explosion des lignes ?

烟火

迷失在身体的信号,
我将停留在漩涡中,
或是重回胚胎?
谁策划线条的爆发?

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/benoit_ceremonieduthe.jpg{/rokbox}

Tuesday, 30 December 2008

Chinese Painting Today

Chinese painting is a special and pervasive feature of China’s social and cultural theater. In this respect, it has to be acknowledged that Chinese painting often functions as an assertion of national pride and uniqueness, which results in endless repetitive motifs. This should not overshadow the remarkable achievements in Chinese painting in the last decades. Actually, when all is said and done, future generations might recognize the 20th century as one of the most creative periods in the history of the venerable artistic tradition called "Chinese painting." Names such as Huang Binhong (1865-1955), Qi Baishi 1863-1957), Li Keran (1907-1989), Shi Lu ( 1919-1982), Lin Fengmian ( 1900-1991) already stand among the best artists of our time, not only in China but worldwide, even if Western knowledge of Chinese art remains very poor indeed.

But what is "Chinese painting" (guohua) anyway? One must first note that guohua can also be translated as "national painting" if one does not simply consider it as an abbreviation of zhongguohua, i.e., "Chinese painting" stricto sensu. The distinction is important for the intent it conveys, if not for the reality to which it refers. "Guohua and zhongguohua commonly refer to works painted with traditional Chinese pigments on a ground of traditional paper or silk. The terms thus describe the medium and ground of the painting rather than the style."

Some critics plead for a much broader definition of “national painting.” Art historian Lin Mu (born 1949) writes:
“Ink work, rice paper and free-hand techniques came into being only during the last few centuries. Painting styles in China also include folk painting, various fresco styles, silk paintings, stone intaglios, from which much is to be learned. As for the traditional ink and wash painting, which takes the Chan school as its spiritual kernel, this simple, elegant and leisurely style may have difficulty surviving in our changing world, where the closed and stagnant agricultural society from which the tradition emerged is being rapidly swept into the past.... Modern society has good reason to demand of Chinese painting a totally new look.”

Like other historians, Lin Mu argues that Chinese tradition is much more diverse and heterogeneous than often acknowledged, and that different schools, materials, techniques and religious faiths generated various styles of painting. It is only in contradistinction to Western art that the literati school came to bear the label of "Chinese painting" and was set into a canon. The limitations in technique and materials proper to this school have long been recognized, by prominent Chinese artists as Pan Tianshou (1897-1971) and Zhang Daqian (1899-1983). To do "Chinese painting" today is to retrieve the diversity of China’s artistic traditions, with particular attention to religious art and the traditions of ethnic minorities. Lin Mu celebrates the "vagueness" (mohuqing) of contemporary Chinese painting—a vagueness he finds far preferable to the insistence upon any one standard or dominant tradition.

The views summarized above are not mere repetitions of the criticisms Chinese painting has endured over the last 40-some years, but may prove to be even more challenging. The history of Chinese painting since 1949 is a tormented one. Traditional painting was first omitted from the curricula of Art academies. Subsequently, Chinese painting was mobilized for a short period in order to celebrate the successes of the new regime. From 1963 on, artists like Shi Lu, Li Keran, Lin Fengmian or Pan Tianshou fell victim (the last posthumously) to violent criticisms aimed at the "wild, weird, chaotic and black" nature of their works, which could not but betray an essentially counter-revolutionary spirit. The re-emergence of the guohua tradition following the Cultural Revolution has been long and difficult. Although the renewed nationalist fervor has helped its rehabilitation, its artistic development has remained under the control of the cultural bureaucracy. In the past two decades, other media have been deemed to better express the spirit of adventure and protest that art can convey. The underlying question is whether "national art" brings with it a predetermined meaning or might conversely be able to express the diversity, contradictions and various pursuits of the whole nation at a given moment in its history.

The debate about Chinese painting is thus a debate about the essence of Chinese identity. A strongly-worded article by Huo Chunyang, responding to positions voiced by Lin Mu and others, says much about what is here at stake. Chinese painting, Huo argues, is a "(spiritual) universe" (jingjie)—an expression derived from the yijing concept, i.e., the "density" or "quality of soul" that one can find in a painting. In its essence, he argues, Chinese painting manifests the spiritual energy gathered by the man who relates to the universe, and, as such, is the pure emanation of ancient Chinese philosophy. "Although the Chinese people received the shock brought by cultures of other people, they have never changed the spirit of their own culture. On the contrary, they have eagerly welcomed, digested and transformed the cultures coming from outside." The aspiration to cosmic unity embodied in this original Chinese culture cannot be found in Western tradition, Huo Chunyang asserts. Nowadays, artists unfaithful to the original spirit of Chinese culture change their style in order to please the foreigners, thus showing a lack of self-respect and self-confidence.

Huo Chunyang’s position reminds one of what is sometimes called "new conservatism" in art history, by which ink and brushwork become symbols of ethnic identity. Although such a position is quite widespread, it is generally not accepted without reservation. A good number of artists and critics hold a middle-of-the-road position, regarding ink and brush as the best medium through which to connect with their own tradition, while experimentation with other techniques they see as a means of engaging with contemporary art worldwide. This has been the case for instance with abstract or semi-abstract ink painting.

The debate on identity just summarized has been intensified by the internationalization of Chinese painting. "Internationalization" here refers to two concurrent phenomena: (1) even the most traditional style of Chinese painting has been deeply influenced by 20th-century Western art; (2) Chinese painting is no longer about China. A growing number of Chinese painters have opportunities to go abroad. As such, nowadays, the ranges of mountains that spill from their brushes sometimes do not evoke the image of Huashan, Huangshan or Emeishan, but rather remind one of landscapes encountered in the Northwest of the US, Western Canada, France’s Brittany or Australia’s South Wales. The first phenomenon is not new. Huang Binhong, who knew Chinese tradition better than anyone else, also learned a great deal from Matisse and Van Gogh. But the trend has taken on new dimensions, as many artists, while remaining faithful to the literati technique, apply it to a whole new range of subjects, or who, like Lin Fengmian, make extensive use of Western colors while maintaining the characteristic calligrapher’s line.

The second phenomenon is even more interesting. It separates the "identity" problem from its "territory" dimension, addressing in much more down-to-earth terms the question of the "Chineseness" of Chinese art. In addition, it gives people firmly rooted in tradition a new sense of universality. The cosmopolitan outlook of Chinese painting might have started among exiles, the most famous of them being of course Zhang Daqian, but others soon followed, sent on official missions. Li Keran’s paintings of East Germany in 1957 are testaments to the new horizons discovered by Chinese artists. Nowadays, the State is not the sole institution able to send Chinese painters abroad. Foreign universities or businesses are also inviting painters to give a Chinese flavor to American, Australian or European landscapes. The special relationship of artist Wu Guanzhong (born 1919) with France, where he has held several exhibitions, is a good example of this developing trend.

The trend towards globalization in Chinese painting should not mask enduring divisions among regional schools of painting—divisions sometimes accompanied by various rivalries and affiliation networks. Differences among regional schools are a pervasive fact of China’s art history. Back in 1961, the continuation of regional emulation was encouraged by Zhou Enlai, whose praise of the Jiangsu school of painting ensured its artists a privileged place for the following two decades. The Jiangsu school might indeed be the best example of a regional school of painting, with its history of several centuries and a distinctive style that nourishes but also sometimes confines the inspiration of local painters. Shaanxi artists offer another example of strong provincial affiliation. The Shaanxi school plays an important role in the cultural history of the post-1949 regime. Its founder, Zhao Wangyun (1906-1977), was an initiator of the new guohua, depicting scenes of contemporary life. After Zhao’s purging during the Anti-rightist campaign, Shi Lu became, for a time, the leader of the young, ebullient school. Here, indeed, artistic creativity and revolutionary fervor, if only briefly, were not seen as contradictory.

Regional differentiation can also have a great impact on the content of the works produced. The above-quoted art historian Lin Mu, for instance, is from the Southwest, and his views may indeed be seen to reflect the fact that most painters from the Southwest seek inspiration outside the mainstream Chan school-literati tradition, (many showing a special liking for the Taoist tradition, Tibetan Buddhism and southwest ethnic minorities’ “primitive” forms of art). The Chinese cultural stock is lived and interpreted in different ways by various schools of Chinese painting, a factor which may be even truer today than was the case 30 years ago.

Chinese painting is not only faced with the realities and opportunities of a market economy, but must also define itself in a global cultural environment. Values fostered by this environment can either render painting even more irrelevant to today’s Chinese society or can help it further to change and modernize its artistic language, giving it new impetus and appeal. Liu Chengji, who lectures at Zhengzhou University, offers an analysis of the aesthetic tendencies at work in the 1990s—an aesthetics that takes into account the dominant trends shaping secular society. Materialism is the first trend to be noticed, which Liu Chengji sees as the principal consequence of the consumerism encouraged by state policies. This stands in sharp contrast against the "humanist" view of culture and society advanced in the 80s. The primacy given to "feelings" is directly linked to the dominant materialism. "I feel, therefore I am" could be the motto of present-day China, and such a trend heavily influences the aesthetic criteria of the general public. A new "post-romanticism" derives from this trend and is best exemplified by the MTV culture. It is called "post-romanticism" because its characteristic "loss of innocence" distinguishes it from previous aesthetics. In the post-romantic (non)ethics, feelings are consciously produced and manipulated. Finally, "ethnicism" has been fuelled by political tensions with the US and Taiwan during the second half of the 90s. According to Liu Chengji, however, this trend is too much determined by political factors to enjoy a sustainable future. A look at the tendencies at work during the first decade of the XXIst century does not fundamentally challenge the description of these trends. One just have to notice that non-Chinese forms of art have taken even more importance, due to the globalization of the market where Chinese artists exhibit and sell their work. However, a stroll throughout the galleries gathered in the famous Moganshan road in Shanghai reveals the continuing and happy coexistence of Chinese painting with oil painting, video installations and other artistic media.

The painter Hu Mingzhe (born 1953), who specializes in popular romantic figure paintings, testifies to the aspirations often expressed by younger artists. She writes: "My soul aspires towards purity, liberation.... Art is a kind of religion, when you believe in it with your entire body and soul, when you fully associate with it, it seems that you are able to hear the voice of God, to feel the call of God.... Art wants to represent life, not social life, but rather spiritual life...." Another woman artist, Zhou Minghui (born 1954) paints motifs inspired by the daily lives of Tibetans living in Aba autonomous prefecture, Sichuan. This place, she says, "appears as a condensing point of human culture, philosophy, religion and history. It is the holy land where all life returns to nature.... What I paint seems to have been purified as well. My mind is serene and my thoughts enlightened.... The decayed is discarded and the original soul is retained.... Ultimately, culture and art will reach the other shore." Similar discourses and examples abound, which shows how a kind of religiosity pervades art. This religiosity has strong links with the dominant culture, in that it heavily relies on "feelings" and uses language and motifs also found in other contexts. At the same time, it expresses aspirations for new modes of life, which somehow transforms it into an indirect form of counter-culture. Not only has Chinese painting a future, but many of its features resonate with the aspirations of the post-modern mind... Through this medium also, China is entering and shaping cultural globalization.


Paintings by Li Jinyuan

Attached media :
{rokbox}media/articles/ChinesePainting1.jpg{/rokbox}{rokbox}media/articles/ChinesePainting2.jpg{/rokbox}

Monday, 29 December 2008

掏空

內在與外在之間的停格,請欣賞笨篤的詩作,

詩作 笨篤

-1-
La cérémonie
La cérémonie du thé
S’épuise avec cette goutte.
Toi, dehors, près de la route,
Tu mets l’eau sur le brasier.

典禮

茶的典禮,
一滴一滴被飲盡。
你在外界在路旁。
拿水澆在炭火上。

-2-
Encagé
Dans la cage : un canari.
Bloqué dans la gorge : un cri.
Dans la nasse : un poisson pris.
Dans mon corps : mon cœur dépris.

掏空

籠子中,一隻金絲雀。
喉嚨中,哽住一聲啼。
魚簍中,一隻魚被抓。
肉身中,我心被掏空。

-3-
Sortir
Hors du creux d’où jaillit l’eau
Qui dit le son de l’écho ?
Hors du gosier de l’oiseau
Qui du chant crierait le mot ?

外界

空孔湧出的清泉,
誰說出回音的聲源?
鳥兒喉嚨的外界,
誰從歌聲吶喊字句?

-4-
Feu d’artifice
Perdu parmi le corps de signes,
Resterai-je en ce tourbillon,
Ou rentrerai-je en l’embryon
Qui ourdit l’explosion des lignes ?

煙火

迷失在身體的信號,
我將停留在漩渦中,
或是重回胚胎?
誰策劃線條的爆發?

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/benoit_ceremonieduthe.jpg{/rokbox}

Monday, 29 December 2008

六位大師的童年框景

橫跨二十世紀的六位電影大導演,六段童年故事的切片。不管童年散發微光、矇矓與強光,日後都串起光芒大師一路探索的燈火…

導演 彥高樂Yann Le Gal等六人
編劇 彥高樂
《六個大師的童年》(Childhoods)
法國出品.2007年德國首映
台灣上映時間 2009年1月1日(聯影/聯贏發行)

從六段故事的吉光片羽,透露六位電影大師影片中日後為人稱道的線索。
《六個大師的童年》描述的是電影大師成為大師的童年軼事。不一定愉悅,不一定被保護,不一定被允許,但他們都有一雙探索的眼睛。
這六段童年故事發生的時間是他們與家人朝夕相處的生活、閒暇時光與學校中的逃逸時刻。時間上讓觀者感覺與他們共渡一段時光,編劇選取真相、差異、階級、嫉妒、幻想、勇氣等不同角度的軼事片段,敘事色彩相連,同時是藝術教育的素材。

真相與差異
〈門後的祕密〉描述的是出生於奧地利導演佛列茲朗(Fritz Lang, 1890-1976)的往事。他十歲參加父母親的婚禮時,驚覺到的祕密讓他堅定的信念瓦解:眷戀的母親,猶太人的身份,粉碎的世界…期待、女性、等待中的確信與誤會於是偷偷地滲入他的底片。
〈拜託開門噢〉說的是一段法國導演賈克大地(Jacques Tati, 1907-1982)與同學、老師拍合照的故事:身高過於高大的他怎麼都走不進相機的鏡頭裡,於是出現他的一小段漫遊。憂鬱、對望、散步、異於常人高度的觀想後來轉變為《我的舅舅》(Mon Oncle, 1958)中的逗趣、歡笑、緊湊,目不暇給的速度是嘲諷現代科技的節拍。

階級與嫉妒
〈祕密基地和舊皮鞋〉中敘述尚雷諾(Jean Renoir, 1894-1979)在假期中與一名貧困少年的相遇,兩個人在河畔相談的畫面令人想起尚雷諾的父親印象派雷諾瓦畫中的光景。樹葉下的點點光影卻不再是富貴人家的歡聚,而充滿不同階級之間存在的緊張、友誼與相互學習。日後尚雷諾《遊戲規則》(La Règle du jeu, 1939)作品中,則在一片淒迷的樹林中呈現貴族奢華的聚獵,獵物全數中彈,中產階級的荒謬世界一覽無遺,像似透過童年同伴的眼光。
瑞典導演英瑪柏格曼(Ingmar Bergman,1918-2007)自稱是大教堂的工匠,導出六十多部直指人心的影片,其中柏格曼的影片《野草莓》(Smultronstället, 1957)或屬〈童年殺人事件〉的迴響。《野草莓》男主角晚年獲頒醫學成就勳帽,前往領獎的路途中腦中的想念卻都是年輕時的蠢事與罪感,而年輕女孩摘著野草莓,對他熱情地說話模樣卻揮之不去。這樣的熱情之火在〈童年殺人事件〉影片中變成了剛出生的妹妹的啼哭聲。小小柏格曼斯文、懂事,最終決定拿起枕頭往下一按,因為妹妹搶奪父母的愛。劇情結構與影像鋪陳深具柏格曼影片之風:最後哭聲終究短暫消失…

幻想與勇氣
〈魅夜〉中童年的希區考克(Alfred Hitchcock, 1899-1980)是個膽怯人物,讓人很難聯想起拿著煙斗,斜著眼看著觀眾巨大而幽默的形像。童年住在英國的他敏感、崇拜劇團女主角,畏懼母親嚴格的家規;他怕黑,活脫像極自己劇中在樓梯狂奔的演員。場景的營造讓人想起一幕幕希區考克的驚悚形式,而嚴厲的母親似乎在他的影片中缺席,溫柔美女一個個跳出他的相簿上場。
〈少年的凝視〉訴說的是奧森威爾斯(Orson Welles, 1915-1985)的堅持與勇氣。他從小愛演戲,朗朗上口的他讓我們想及《大國民》(Citizen Kane,1941)中報業大王的口才與表演才情的出處。此外,他在重病母親的床前守候,不離開半步,小小年紀的堅持與勇氣令人動容…

小孩子喜歡穿大鞋,搖來晃去想和大人一般高;年紀日長的人們往往喜歡端望小孩子的微笑,想和純真童心一起悠遊。穿越導演的童年,再欣賞大師的作品,在交錯中品味其趣…每個人可找到與自己同調或是不同調的欣喜與驚奇。

-----------------------------------------------------
導演一覽表
佛列茲朗【門後的祕密】Yann Le Gal
大地【拜託開門噢】Joana Hadjithomas & Khalil
尚雷諾【祕密基地和舊皮鞋】Ismaël Ferroukhiao
柏格曼【童年殺人事件】Safy Nebbou
希區考克【魅夜】Corinne Garfin
威爾斯【少年的凝視】Isild Le Besco
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延伸觀影【六位電影大師陪你跨年】就在國家資料館
2008年12月23日-2008年1月13日
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【人籟論辨月刊第56期,2009年1月】

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_tw.jpg|}media/articles/childhoodscineplex.swf{/rokbox}

Friday, 28 November 2008

潮浪來襲.極權再現

「專制與極權可能在現今西方社會死灰復燃嗎?」
「自由主義孕育的新生代對法西斯集權思潮有免疫力嗎?」
「握有權力者能抗拒『以控制他人為樂』的誘惑嗎?」
這些問題在《惡魔教室》,有令人震撼的解答。

鄭祿平 撰文

導演 丹尼斯.甘塞爾(Dennis Gansel)
片名《惡魔教室》(The Wave)
出品年份 二○○八年
台灣上映時間 二○○八年十一月(傳影互動發行)

本片由美國作家莫頓‧盧(Morton Rhue)同名小說改編。小說靈感來自一九六七年美國加州一所高中發生的真實故事,電影則探討現代社會面臨法西斯主義的衝擊所產生的效應。
片中原本滿懷抱負的溫老師想在新學期教授「無政府主義」,不料被資深老師威朗搶先一步,只好改教「獨裁主義」。有趣的是,以集權方式壟斷權力的「獨裁主義」與反獨裁主義的「無政府主義」,卻在校園正式開打;不幸的則是,無政府的理想完全抵擋不了獨裁浪潮侵襲,第二天,威朗的學生就紛紛投入溫老師的懷抱。

驚濤駭浪掀起

獨裁制度皆有其領導人物,此領導者屬韋伯(Weber)所言「卡里司瑪權威」(Charismatic Authority)類型:因具非凡魅力,其非主流行動總吸引更多人參與。溫老師是這個班級具有此類特質的人,在他被拱為領導者後,隨即要求學生在課堂上喚他為「威格先生」,以其命令為行事指導原則。為營造集體意識氛圍,溫老師也重新調整同學的座位(去角色),以消弭個性化的自由意志,致力服從權威,使彼此成為命運共同體。
此刻,班級內情境力量已大於個人意志。眾人將這新組織取名為「潮浪」,陸續訂定識別記號,包括穿白襯衫(制服)、揮動固定手勢、建立網站識別系統,並服膺「紀律鑄造力量」之理念。
受到強烈歸屬感及認同感的鼓舞,大伙兒都想在團體內有好表現,讓自己成為標準潮浪份子。於是這些學生四處張貼印有潮浪logo的貼紙,甚至冒險爬到大樓鷹架,在外掛的大型帆布上噴漆。雖然這些瘋狂舉動讓市警人員頭痛不已,卻吸引不少年輕人的目光。這些學生也在課堂外招募組織成員,將溫老師的理念發揚光大。短短幾天不到,整個校園迷漫一股「潮浪」熱,組織成員倍增。現在他們最大的敵人,竟是非我族類的非潮浪或反潮浪者。

何謂自由

片中人物內在性格與外在行為在「潮浪」出現後,也產生了有趣轉變。如原本處在劣勢(weakness)受人欺凌排斥的迪莫,加入組織後性格丕變──其擁槍自重、逞兇鬥狠的強勢作為,一改過去唯唯諾諾的軟弱;喜歡唱反調、破壞團體和諧與常規的費爾迪,在加入潮浪後,竟蛻變成服從權威、遵守團體紀律的青年;麗莎成為潮浪人後,則開始勇於表達意見,不但與好友卡羅爭執,並大膽向卡羅男友馬克示愛,與之前的害羞溫柔判若兩人;而強調遵守秩序的卡羅,也在「潮浪」引發一連串受爭議的行動後,開始質疑紀律的價值,甚至最後成為反動者。
對於溫老師的教學方式,不僅其他教職人員嗤之以鼻,就連同執教鞭的妻子也看不下去。校方則私下支持溫老師,畢竟他們對學生缺乏紀律與管教的無禮,早就忍無可忍!如同電影《我和我的小鬼》(The Class)所突顯的自由主義(Liberalism)教育弊端:學生在課堂上言語肢體衝突不斷,刻薄的砲火讓原本滿懷理想的老師澆熄教學熱情。
事實上,自由主義引發的爭議不勝枚舉。以族群議題來說,當強調公平無差異的自由主義面對少數族群(如原住民)在缺乏資源(或資源被掠奪)的立足點不平等的情況下,要他們如何與主流/強勢族群在社會上公平競爭?也因這種種謬誤,反自由主義的思惟與理念遂有機可乘。

天使惡魔一線之隔

溫老師被學生的崇拜沖昏了頭。儘管最後他終於覺醒,想利用推倒偶像(他自己)權威,讓跟隨者信心動搖,使組織瓦解,終止實驗,但情況並非如此單純:當迪莫眼見心中巨人──威格先生變成平凡人,他的情緒崩潰,先槍擊叛離組織的同學,而後在所有潮浪成員面前飲彈自盡。
短短六天,一套制服、一個身分,就輕易讓人性情大變。這令人想起同樣只維持六天的「史丹佛監獄實驗」(The Stanford Prison Experiment)──主導這項實驗的社會心理學家金巴多(Philip G. Zimbardo)教授,早在一九七一年就看清人性本質,以及情境對人類性格轉變具有的深刻影響力。三十多年後,金巴多教授在《路西法效應》(The Lucifer Effect)書中,除了從「史丹佛監獄實驗」到「伊拉克監獄虐囚案」觀察到的社會現象剖析複雜人性,最重要的是,他讓我們明瞭「情境力量」與「團體動力」如何使天使變成惡魔。
本片是《英雄教育》(NaPolA)導演丹尼斯‧甘賽爾執導的最新作品。除沿用《英》片男主角馬克思‧雷邁特(Max Riemelt)擔任水球校隊隊員,還請來約根‧沃格爾(Jurgen Vogel)飾演實驗課獨裁領導者──溫老師。丹尼斯似乎對極權思潮如何魅惑年輕人心志特感興趣:「很多人誤以為我們已對極權主義產生免疫力,事實上我認為這是自我欺騙。偽裝在集體心理下的獨裁主義仍舊活躍,只差一個具煽動群眾力量的領導者。」丹尼斯的忠告完整體現在整部作品,而且他終究相信人有反省/自覺能力,於是安排卡羅在校園內發放反「潮浪」宣傳單,彷彿重現一九四三年反納粹組織「白玫瑰」(the White Rose)的索爾兄妹冒險到處散發反納粹傳單。這意味無論情境多麼混亂黑暗,仍有人不畏險阻,維護社會公平與正義,在道德良知驅使下,為所應為!

【人籟論辨月刊第55期,2008年12月】

附加的多媒體:
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Thursday, 27 November 2008

李金遠的油畫藝術

凡繪畫不離光與影的取捨,中國水墨畫尤然,墨與紙較量空間的比例,白與黑終以定形略地,水遊於兩端的過度。觀李金遠之作,個人所見,其畫之墨影與明光的拿捏成了一役真正的搏戰,「對搏」無疑為其畫作的主題。

若沒有差錯的話,我所見過的李金遠畫作,涵蓋了出道至今的畫作,首批的作品追隨其師馮建吳之畫跡,慢慢地探索四川各地奇景,透過這個過程,他逐漸覓得個人的風格。居法期間以至回國後,還有居泰期間以至回國後,畫作設色鮮豔明朗。在阿巴高原,繼而在涼山地區,又進行新的探索。之後他追溯利瑪竇從義大利南部赴北京之路,沿途創作系列作品。最近完成的畫,形景最為抽象,混用水墨與金色丙烯。隨著時地與風格的多元,若要給李金遠的畫作一分類,我會約略分為兩個類別,流光畫和幽墨畫,兩者可謂彼此互補。

幽墨諸畫作,光潛於墨形之後,隱耀不得出。光儼然自遊自走,惟讓人遺忘,不論宇宙、世上,或是人心,黑暗見勝。此類之作,幽暗凝重,力透紙背。高山巍峨,積墨沉鬱。丹青烘托黑墨,黑更見黑。畫中並非無光,靈明微光,惟恐盡滅。光多現於畫軸下半,令觀者自忖,斑斑點光,能否照亮暗天暗地?何以竟功?然生命竟在此處:眾獸、牧人和老婦。行者一步一行,同樣絕望的交戰,在心中掙扎。李金遠近作多用金色丙烯,其主要意旨無非引人領略,樹根在大地的深洞交搏。金色道出太陽遙不可及。從幽微的內心,大家想望一個光的世界,一個自由的風的世界。

反之,流光諸畫歡頌光的流湧,此刻正逢奇蹟閃出之時。誠屬奇蹟一樁,卻無人知曉。泰國景色的鳥兒,或是法國比里牛斯山的高山,輕吟輕唱。四川霧色近乎螢光色澤。利瑪竇的故鄉沉潤世上的千顏色彩。白雪道出,心的本性是永恆的早晨。深墨,黑影和幽深的殘跡,彷彿總在瞬間消融,進入光全然的榮耀。

某些畫作顯然介乎兩端,此類應屬李金遠上乘之作。幽墨諸畫恐有渲情之虞,而流光諸畫或偶失謹嚴,時而有失焦之憾。一端幽暗見勝,一端光忽焉凌駕,這些畫作居其中者,精確傳達李金遠對和諧狀態的探尋,在其中萬物尋得其性,其真向度。因此,畫立於渾沌與和諧之間,光浸透幽暗的肌理,幽暗以其陰影覆光,影下猶讓人聽聞鳥的歌聲:渾沌與和諧渾然一體。

一九九五年八月至一九九六年二月期間,李金遠首次赴法創作,這個時期的作品,有些人對其畫風呈現的張力,色彩運用的赤裸,感到驚奇。個人所見,這正標記了一個階段,確立光最終戰勝幽暗,這也是藝術家想要轉換的內在經驗。其後諸畫作,李金遠從這個具有決定性的體驗,以及中國的繪畫的根源之間,做出一個綜論。色彩的運用在國畫誠屬難題,但並不構成藝術形式的限制。就意境而言,國畫不求顏色似也,意求色的本源、源頭和奧蹟,光經由此出現,奪色,入形,生影,給予無盡的豐繁樣貌。李金遠目前處於創作力高的階段,正可如此觀之,李君直探光的本源,探向光的源頭,歸探火苗,看似微弱,卻不斷新生,直至微火燃燎萬物。從內心深處光的得勝,李金遠想要回歸火的初始,探向第一道火光,正如樹的歸根。

matrixa_ljy05_ct_s以上所述,諸多流光與幽暗的交戰,實則見於李金遠畫作的他類向度,如簡樸與蒼苦的對比,李金遠圖畫的佈局往往取用簡單的形式,而內心糾結的律動,呼應幽暗的構思,現於外在世界,正如內心世界一般。更重要的是,李金遠的畫作具有多重面向,其畫作可解讀為美學的呈現,寄涵中國現代史的寓意,畫家自我性靈發展的評述,跨文化滋養的實踐。對我而言,最令我感到驚奇的,是他的畫作所傳達出的深度靈修層面。前面所談的搏戰,並非是一場暴力之戰。所謂的搏戰,乃朝向柔性與去我的過程,這般的搏戰使得李金遠在面對宇宙的創造力量時,顯得卑亢,這場搏戰把李金遠置於醜與美,暴力與溫柔,幽暗與靈明對立的衝突震央。畫作形同畫家的靈魂,變成一個空間,通過陣痛,新天新地取形得貌。

如此的靈修深度,的確讓藝術家顯得卑亢,慧眼者適可辨得若干天梯,李金遠往後得以更上一層樓。以下乃吾人所思,曾再三躊躇是否道出,在此仍嘗試提出淺見。觀者欣賞李金遠某些畫作時,不禁隨畫牽引而問道,對李金遠這個人而言,是否「抒懷」比「領略」更為自如?換言之,李君作品呈現性靈赤誠的一面,欲求外放其內在的性靈和視野。同時,李金遠其視界外傳的方式,似乎讓我們覺得,李君之所以轉化體驗為畫,多來自靈光的直覺。李金遠取納奧蹟,較之轉化直覺,前者較為不易。

李金遠能否敞迎光湧的奇蹟,而不刻意流露抱負之痕?他能否領悟光的顯現,畫下光的靈明,正如光最初照耀人們的明亮?我認為,李金遠有朝必能納取生命的禮讚,並加以畫出,正如孩童在清晨甦醒,靈魂與光渾合為一。李金遠所畫的交戰,仍在他的心靈盤距,然而這個戰役領他探向樸實,探向其眼光直觀更加高致的境界。有朝李金遠將全然釋放居於內心的光,光的本源將在畫中湧現。

Wednesday, 26 November 2008

書寫歷史的真實力量

只有親身活過那段往事的人的感受最是真實。我說,或許我們還是應該往文學的想像裡尋找書寫歷史的力量。

我的主角就這樣肢離破碎的死了。我看著他許久之後也沉默的離去。我轉身走開的時候,深夜的天空還在繼續飄著雪。我豎起衣領仰頭望去,異國的雪花確實毫不曖昧的跳著冰冷的迴旋舞。我的主角曾經問過,為什麼他要在這樣的場景下被通知弟弟的死訊。我沒有什麼像樣的話可以回答。我想,也許單純只是因為那本不是他所喜歡的場景。
我帶著一點空虛感離開,然後來到我的女教授的研究室外。我的女教授是個非常苛刻的人,有一張瘦長的臉,和令我不期然聯想起北海道愛奴人的髮色。他總是戴著一副細邊眼鏡。每次他透過那薄得有點過份的鏡片盯著我看,追問我荒廢已久的進度時,我都很想反問他是否其實視力正常,否則那麼薄的鏡片看來實在不像是能發揮任何作用的樣子。
我不知道自己為什麼會一路走到他的研究室門口。要能夠來到這裡,我必然經過了樓下的大門和這一樓層的刷卡檢查,但我一點也不記得自己有經過這些關卡,也不記得有聽到過刷卡時那刺耳的嗶嗶聲。而且深夜裡這棟大樓也太暗了,我到底是怎樣安然走到這邊,卻沒有撞到影印機或走廊上的置物櫃及書架呢。
我想起我和女教授第二天早晨還有約會,我得向他報告進度。我想我應該要先回到住處去洗個熱水澡,把自己泡在浴缸裡,讓蒸氣麻痺我的頭腦,釋放我的意識,然後把握最後一點時間,躲入溫暖的棉被睡一場好覺。可是我有點太累了。我在女教授研究室門口漫無目的轉了幾個圓圈,在黑暗中伸手用力磨擦自己凍僵的臉。最後我將厚重的外衣全部卸下,抱著那一團毛料在他門前柔軟的地毯上睡著了。
之後我作了一個過度清晰的夢。夢中跟我的女教授進行了一場漫長的談話,幾乎耗盡了大半個下午的時光。我在被書籍全面包圍,連窗戶也沒有的研究室裡,與他辯論勾勒歷史的方法。像我的主角反抗我一樣,我不斷的反抗他想要勸服我的學院理想。我說,所謂的歷史不過就是許多人熱切或絕望著活過的當下。除了去把握那流逝了的每一刻裡承載過的悲哀、憤怒、愉快或是幸福,我們再也沒有其他的方法可以描繪出過往的真實。真實只是一種莫名所以的感受,不管有多少看待往事的觀點同時存在,只有親身活過那段往事的人的感受最是真實。我說,或許我們還是應該往文學的想像裡尋找書寫歷史的力量。
最後我與女教授不歡而散。我戴上帽子禮貌的告辭,臨去時感謝他撥空給我寶貴的意見。我走下大樓背面狹小的鐵板安全梯,穿過假日裡非常冷清的穿堂,在厚重的玻璃門前繫好圍巾,然後深吸一口氣,推開門走進了一片白茫茫的雪地裡。
這個夏天裡充滿綠意的廣場現在是一片死寂。本來修剪得很整齊的草坪現在完全被白雪覆蓋,高大的路樹無一例外的如災民一般乾癟,他們的枝幹空蕩蕩的在我頭上交錯,一點也不能阻擋新雪繼續飄落我的肩膀。
我的靴子在被踩成堅冰的雪地上發出喀吱喀吱困頓的聲音,我聽著那個聲音,像著了迷一般低頭看著自己的靴子,跟著自己的腳步不斷的走著,直到被一道石階阻住去路,才抬頭看清了自己不知何時已經來到鎮上的天主堂前。陰霾的天空底下,小小的石造的灰色教堂在枯枝與白雪的襯托下因為看來孤單而顯得有些古怪。
教堂裡十分黝暗,每一排座椅都是空的,視線盡頭的聖壇前,有人站在玻璃花窗灑下的微弱光亮裡練習唱歌。我站在教堂陰暗的入口處,在厚重的門前聽著這個聲音。似乎有些飄渺的聲音,在空蕩蕩的教堂裡引發某種類似共鳴的情感。

Panis angelicus fit panis hominum
天使之糧成了人類的食糧…

歌聲忽遠忽近,始終那麼渺茫。於是我閉上眼睛,落入了一片沉穩的黑暗。

Te trina Deitas unaque poscimus
三位一體的神 我們請求你……

我在黑暗裡看到許多模糊的東西向我伸出手,不斷試著要抓住我的頭髮。那些手在空中扭曲著,好像要把什麼古怪的意念透過抓取的動作植入我腦中。  我的目光停留在那些手上。不是因為我很樂意看他們,只是始終無法移開自己的視線。我彷彿被釘牢在那些詭異的影像上,一邊望著他們一邊感覺到自己的髮根都硬了起來,些微的麻木感像螞蟻瘟疫般從頭頂往下移動蔓延,爬滿了我整個腰背,爬過我的臀部和大腿,直到腳後跟。我的身體在厚重的衣物下,因為那不知名的什麼東西而一點一點的發冷。

Per tuas semitas duc nos quo tendimus,
引領我們隨著你的道路去尋
Ad lucem quam inhabitas.
你所居住的光明

寒凍感令我猛然睜開雙眼。同樣是在視線的盡頭,聖壇前空無一人,人聲已經淡去,窗口依舊透進些微的光亮。在那光亮所及之外,還隱約可見十字架和某種模糊的形影。

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/tafalong_D_histoire.jpg{/rokbox}

Wednesday, 26 November 2008

惡靈年代的尾聲

惡靈在每個枝頭埋伏著,等待著
直到不知多久以前某個濱海悶熱的夏天
趕趕樹的花都謝了,
然後結滿了不祥的果實

【孿生弟弟勒卡兒】當我企圖逃亡的時候,惡靈殺死了勒卡兒,然後從背後攫住了我,永久的奪去了我的靈魂。我在與我無關的世界裡沉沒下去,連氣泡都沒有的沉沒了。

在這個世界上,如果有誰能夠使我的靈魂完整,或者使我的靈魂破碎,那必定是我的孿生弟弟勒卡兒(Lkal)。我不知道他為什麼會被取了這樣一個名字。就我所知,我們村子中不曾有人叫做勒卡兒,因此他的命名由來對我而言一直是個謎。
直到後來我才想到,或許是因為我們是雙生子吧。在加走灣我們的村子裡,雙生子是惡的象徵。就像雙生的趕趕沒有人敢吃,長著相似面容的雙生子也沒有人願意親近。或許也是基於同樣的原因,不曾有誰加意責怪過身為哥哥的我,但無意間成為弟弟的他卻被取了這樣的名字。
勒卡兒──吶喊。
儘管如此,我卻像愛著大洋那樣愛著我的弟弟勒卡兒。失去父母之後,我們的少年時代幾乎陷入完全的孤立當中。村子裡的耳語說,惡靈跟隨我們的腳蹤,在夜裡進入屋中殺死了我們的父母。在那充滿了禁忌惡靈肆虐的年代,每當我的眼角餘光注意到有人刻意繞過走在路中間的我們,我總是緊緊握住勒卡兒的手。我總是覺得有人在背後指指點點。他們當中必定有人在說,雙生子中理當有一個人要死去。兩個人以雙生子的身份開始活的那一刻,就是噩運的開始。
「哥哥,好痛了我的手。」等我們走到無人的地方時,勒卡兒才會輕聲的提醒我。
我握得太用力了。
勒卡兒是我的影子,勒卡兒是我的靈魂。在彷彿永無止盡被孤立的歲月裡,勒卡兒是我寄託心的地方。我特別喜歡他的眼睛。勒卡兒的眼白非常白,即使在已經成為少年人以後,還是像小孩子一般帶著水藍色。勒卡兒的眼睛裡裝著海洋。我的眼睛裡沒有海洋,卻住著勒卡兒。
要到了這麼久之後我才明白過來,我的眼睛裡從來都只住著勒卡兒。可是當我終於能夠看清自己的時候,勒卡兒已經消失了。那很像我們少年時代一起看過的海面上的流星。沒有月亮的夜裡,非常燦爛的流星。流星滑過天空,照亮了我眼前的勒卡兒,當他落入遙遠的海面,我眼前的勒卡兒也隨之暗去,隱沒在大洋波濤的深夜裡。

長久以來,我以為自己再也沒有去回想那些事了。如果不是因為被通知了勒卡兒自殺的消息,我大概也不會記起吧。我不是很明白,為什麼會在雪夜強風過境的時候被通知了勒卡兒的死訊。突然間我有點想不起來,自己究竟是怎樣來到這個冬天會飄雪的地方。
走入深夜的雪地之後,我的耳朵和雙手很快就凍僵了。站在雪地裡超市的停車場前,望著被推到路邊比人還高的大雪堆,和雪堆背後的超市所透出的明亮燈光,突然間我覺得膝蓋無法支撐全部的體重,就這樣在路邊坐了下來。就在那一刻我彷彿看見當年的勒卡兒。雖然事隔這樣多年,當我忍不住再去回想,還是無法不記起他紅著雙眼朝我臉上揮拳打來的模樣。
勒卡兒重重打了我一拳,將我打倒在地,然後頭也不回的轉身從我眼前離去。我也想要張口呼喊,可是喉嚨是啞的,沒有辦法發出任何聲音。我只能一直這樣坐著,直到勒卡兒消失在路的另一端。
我只能這樣坐著。雪片飄進我的衣領,隨著我的體溫而融化,然後慢慢流過胸口。我的胸中是空洞的。我的孿生弟弟勒卡兒,他就是我的靈魂,而我使我的靈魂永遠的破碎了。

我是這樣背叛了勒卡兒。也許從我懷著焦躁的心情看待勒卡兒的時候開始,我就已經背叛了他。在那之前,每一次勒卡兒回應我的叫聲而轉過頭來的時候,我看到他裝著海洋的眼睛,胸口都會感受到海潮的衝撞。我曾經多麼安心的看著勒卡兒,在他的凝視之下我從不曾感到恐懼,然而不知從什麼時候開始,惡靈的眼睛在我背後窺伺,每當我從勒卡兒身旁走過,惡靈就使我的膝蓋不由自主的發抖。
有一天晚餐過後,我和勒卡兒像往常一樣併肩在屋後清洗物件。我低頭洗著碗,並且偷偷的瞄向勒卡兒。
勒卡兒正在看我。這使我焦慮得將碗摔碎在地上。
我不知道為什麼會失手將碗摔在地上,摔碎了碗之後也無法動彈。勒卡兒看了我一眼,然後蹲下去撿拾那些破碎的陶片。他用手把那些碎片聚集起來,將他們全部捧去扔在屋邊的石臼裡。一些碎碴割傷了他的手,細小的血珠從他的手上紛紛冒出來,形成某種詭異的會顫動的圖形。他轉過身來,站在門口望著我。我的嘴唇有些發抖。我想起當年他被溪邊的小石子割傷的事,那時我毫不猶豫的拉起他的手。
我跟勒卡兒對望著。最後我走去握住他的手,牽著他穿過趕趕樹和一整片長草地,來到沒有月亮的海邊。我把勒卡兒的手放在嘴邊,用我自己的嘴唇去確認沒有碎片遺留在他的手裡,然後在海水裡洗淨他的雙手。
我們在玉石灘上坐了許久,然後像童年時代一樣牽著手衝進海洋的深處,讓海浪撲上我們,洗淨我們因為他人的恐懼輕視而不幸贏得的所有傷口。非常燦爛的流星滑過暗色的天空,照亮了我眼前的勒卡兒,然後勒卡兒隨著流星隱沒在黑夜裡。我的眼睛看不見勒卡兒,但是我感覺得到他像大洋一樣情感波動的胸口。
那是我最後一次和勒卡兒在海中如童年那般追逐著彼此。

我還是像愛著大洋一樣愛著我的弟弟勒卡兒。我只是想要擺脫惡靈的追逐,卻被惡靈牢牢攫在手中。每當入睡之後,就有各種各樣的聲音來敲打我的頭顱。我們聽到了,我們看到了,就連你的心我們也不會放過。那些聲音不斷反覆的說著,直到恐懼把我打倒為止。有一天夜裡又從夢中驚醒的時候,我終於伸手推開了急忙靠過來查看的勒卡兒。
我就這樣背叛了勒卡兒,試著將他從我眼底抹去。加走灣再也不是我和勒卡兒共度少年時光的故鄉,卻變成困苦和錯誤的同義詞。我拼命向無關的人群伸出手,幻想著有誰可以將我帶走。那長達近三十公里的玉石灣岸在我的記憶裡失去了明亮的日光,被惡靈一口吞噬了。

那一年我離開了加走灣,離開了勒卡兒,一個人來到花蓮港(Kalingko)。這裡沒有人會刻意繞過我,也沒有小孩子會朝我丟時間果。在花蓮的那幾年,我漸漸忘記了勒卡兒被鄰居的小孩用時間果和石頭砸中額頭的往事。
勒卡兒向前撲倒在我身上,鮮血從他柔軟的頭髮裡不斷流下,把他的臉孔染紅了。
「哥哥,衣服髒掉了。」勒卡兒睜大了眼睛望著我。
我緊緊的抱住勒卡兒。那些惡靈般的小孩在我們身後吵鬧著,但他們的呼喊聲似乎愈來愈遠。在大人跑過來之前,我始終緊緊的抱住勒卡兒,把他的額頭壓在我的胸口。
有人刺穿了我的心。當他變涼的時候,是勒卡兒溫熱的血流過我的胸口。

勒卡兒從加走灣來看我的時候,他看到的已經不再是當年那個會緊抱住他的哥哥。他看到的是我擁抱著的別人。
那一天,我追著勒卡兒到街上,我伸手去拉他,但是他回身重重打了我一拳,將我打倒在地。
正午的豔陽照著我。在街的那一端勒卡兒最後消失的地方,兩旁整齊排列的日式屋舍在我的視線裡彷彿即將蒸發一般扭曲著。我本來可以追上去,但是我沒有。勒卡兒走出視線之後,我就張開雙臂躺倒在炙熱的路面上,不再看他了。我閉上眼睛的時候,眼前是一片白熱的光亮。我的背被烈火灼傷了,可是我的心是涼的。
那一天,沒有誰刺穿我的心。是我自己將心拋棄了。我再也沒有像以前那樣緊緊抱住勒卡兒。
我張開雙臂在烈日下迎接的不過是空無而已。

丟失了這一切之後,我再也沒有告訴任何人我有一個孿生弟弟勒卡兒,我曾經住在有趕趕樹生長的灣岸,在我和勒卡兒出生的那年夏天,村子裡有許多趕趕都結著雙生的果實。
我沒有再用我和勒卡兒共通的語言說過任何一句話,就這樣拋棄了一切,隨著海船去了比花蓮更遙遠的地方,最後落腳在另一個有港灣的城市。我好像隨著海潮從南國漂來的棋盤腳種子,在某個暗夜的港邊偷偷的生長,在深夜裡開著散漫的穗花,試圖用末端微弱的螢光照亮自己的靈魂,卻只是照亮了空無的深處。

我在與我無關的世界裡沉沒下去,連氣泡都沒有的沉沒了。

我抬頭望著高大的雪堆,不知道什麼時候起那後面的燈光已經熄滅,雪堆在深夜裡變成暗淡的顏色。我努力的爬進雪堆,拼命的往那深處擠進去。我在雪堆裡面。在誰都看不見我,我也看不見任何東西的地方,將雪一把一把的往自己口中塞去,把所有的冰冷都一點也不遺漏的吞了下去,發出啊啊啊啊的悶喊。我在雪堆裡好像羞於見人一般用手遮住自己的臉。在沒有人會看到我的時刻,我遮住了自己的臉。我背叛了勒卡兒,在那之後,不管擁抱著誰,我都沒有擁抱到任何東西。也許我不是沒有想過要再像以前那樣緊緊的抱住勒卡兒,但是那些念頭被我一一肢解,埋進加走灣的玉石灘,拋進花蓮港的大浪,沉入大洋的最深處。
我想起了勒卡兒的臉,於是我在雪堆裡拼命的打著自己。這張扭曲的臉是我自己,我始終無能叫出聲來的吶喊是勒卡兒。我在雪堆裡摀住自己的眼睛,在一片黑暗中永無止盡的凝視著我的勒卡兒。
我和勒卡兒出生的那一年夏天,加走灣的村子裡有許多趕趕樹都結著雙生的果實。雙生子是惡的象徵,注定要被惡靈尾隨。我和勒卡兒在惡靈之鄉彼此依靠,我把我的心寄託在他那裡。當我企圖逃亡的時候,惡靈殺死了勒卡兒,然後從背後攫住了我,永久的奪去了我的靈魂。我曾經非常誠實的愛著我的弟弟勒卡兒,但從我不再誠實的那一刻起,我只是活在刻意為自己編織的謊言裡。我終於開始了解,少年時代和勒卡兒一起站在溪邊的時候他說過的話。
「時光好像溪流中間的水。若是沒有特別留意,你看不到他在流動。」
失去了寄託心的地方,靈魂破碎之後的我,畢竟只能在一片黑暗裡看著時光從我眼前流過。我在無盡的寒冷中想著我就要這樣漸漸老去了。如果現在我被開來的車撞死了,解剖者會發現我的胸口是空洞的。我的心已經在那一年被我親手埋葬了。在那之後,不管還會活著多久,我都將繼續活在那個充滿禁忌惡靈肆虐的年代。我想,我再也不會回到加走灣去了。這個世界不管哪裡都已經沒有我可以安身的地方。惡靈抱住了我,已經沒有任何人可以鬆開惡靈的手臂,帶我回到玉石遍布明亮的灣岸。
我用滅火器打破了超市的窗戶。警報器瘋狂響起的時候,我撿起玻璃片慢慢的切割自己,用鮮血在雪地上塗滿了吶喊。
我在自己手中一點一點破碎下去。這些黏稠的東西,裝載過我體內所有的沉默與背叛,我要無聲無息的把他們留在這個地方。我靠在角落裡望著滿地的勒卡兒,然後撲倒在雪地裡厚厚的玻璃碎片上。我掙扎著翻身,聽到身下的玻璃碎片在耳邊發出卡卡卡茲的呻吟。
超市的燈光重新亮起來,有人隨著警笛聲的靠近圍攏到我身邊。我望著那些失焦的臉孔,用他們聽不懂的語言反覆的訴說,我已經沒有靈魂了,再也不必懼怕惡靈而躲避著勒卡兒。
時光就像溪流裡的水。我躺在碎片上睜大了眼睛,就這樣看著時光慢慢流過眼前。流去吧,充滿禁忌惡靈肆虐的年代。在破碎的我和滿地的勒卡兒中間,除了不斷流動的時光以外,終於再也沒有任何別的東西。

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox}media/articles/tafalong_D_Lkal.jpg{/rokbox}

Tuesday, 25 November 2008

祖源之歌:太巴塱部落

There is a growing number of movies and TV episodes that tell of conflicts between human intelligence and the artificial intelligence designed by humans for the control of human-like robots, machines that simulate human activity. A scenario envisioned by many scientists is to develop and manufacture humanoid robots that look and act, even feel and think as humans do. These humanoids would then be available to perform human tasks freeing humans for leisure activities. So long as there are no problems in the programs that control the robots, everything goes well. But suppose that some bad humans program the robots to attack and enslave the rest of mankind so they become the masters of the world maintaining complete control over the robots.

Another deviation depicted in stories is that the digital intelligence planted in robots develops into an independent intelligence no longer under human control and the robots then eliminate the humans to take over the world for themselves. Of course, in all the stories in the end some humans manage to instill a virus into the robot’s cyber system or come up with some bright idea that enables them to overcome the robots and restore the human domination.

In any case the age of cybernetics is here to stay and more and more sophisticated robots are being developed. I don’t understand the digital electronic program control systems or the complicated mechanical mechanisms that respond so accurately to computer control, but it fills me with awe.

Take for instance, the action of a human dashing at top speed through a heavily wooded forest with no path or level ground. It requires a keen eye to anticipate obstacles, an intelligence to transform what is seen into decisions about where to place the feet and directions to the muscles and nerves that will control the motion of the limbs and maintain bodily balance as I dash on without slowing down or injury. A human’s neurological, muscular and skeletal systems have developed over the years and he or she has the advantage of years of walking and running experience, but a robot has to start from scratch. First the mechanical structure of limbs, joints and movements, then the computer system has to be programmed to turn the images that come through the sensors of the visual system into commands that regulate every moving part so that the robot dashes forward without injury or fall. If successful, it can be cloned and reproduced.

Even more complicated are robotic representations of human emotions and intelligence. Is there some invisible line that no mechanical human-made creature can ever cross? Christians who accept the possibility of evolution believe that at some point in the upward evolution of some primate, the conditions were finally right for God to endow the creature with a soul and humankind was born with intelligence, free will, conscience, immortality and the moral responsibility to do good and avoid evil.

Is it possible that humans could develop the art of making robots to the point that conditions are just right for God to give them souls, endowing them with intelligence, free will, conscience, moral responsibility and immortality? Should this happen or seem to happen, what a raging theological discussion and controversy it would create!

The lesson to learn from all this is that no matter what humankind manages to develop and build, it can never relinquish the moral responsibility to use it well for the common good.

Here is a fable I wrote that illustrates this problem.

Attached media :
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Tuesday, 25 November 2008

祖源之歌:太巴塱部落

There is a growing number of movies and TV episodes that tell of conflicts between human intelligence and the artificial intelligence designed by humans for the control of human-like robots, machines that simulate human activity. A scenario envisioned by many scientists is to develop and manufacture humanoid robots that look and act, even feel and think as humans do. These humanoids would then be available to perform human tasks freeing humans for leisure activities. So long as there are no problems in the programs that control the robots, everything goes well. But suppose that some bad humans program the robots to attack and enslave the rest of mankind so they become the masters of the world maintaining complete control over the robots.

Another deviation depicted in stories is that the digital intelligence planted in robots develops into an independent intelligence no longer under human control and the robots then eliminate the humans to take over the world for themselves. Of course, in all the stories in the end some humans manage to instill a virus into the robot’s cyber system or come up with some bright idea that enables them to overcome the robots and restore the human domination.

In any case the age of cybernetics is here to stay and more and more sophisticated robots are being developed. I don’t understand the digital electronic program control systems or the complicated mechanical mechanisms that respond so accurately to computer control, but it fills me with awe.

Take for instance, the action of a human dashing at top speed through a heavily wooded forest with no path or level ground. It requires a keen eye to anticipate obstacles, an intelligence to transform what is seen into decisions about where to place the feet and directions to the muscles and nerves that will control the motion of the limbs and maintain bodily balance as I dash on without slowing down or injury. A human’s neurological, muscular and skeletal systems have developed over the years and he or she has the advantage of years of walking and running experience, but a robot has to start from scratch. First the mechanical structure of limbs, joints and movements, then the computer system has to be programmed to turn the images that come through the sensors of the visual system into commands that regulate every moving part so that the robot dashes forward without injury or fall. If successful, it can be cloned and reproduced.

Even more complicated are robotic representations of human emotions and intelligence. Is there some invisible line that no mechanical human-made creature can ever cross? Christians who accept the possibility of evolution believe that at some point in the upward evolution of some primate, the conditions were finally right for God to endow the creature with a soul and humankind was born with intelligence, free will, conscience, immortality and the moral responsibility to do good and avoid evil.

Is it possible that humans could develop the art of making robots to the point that conditions are just right for God to give them souls, endowing them with intelligence, free will, conscience, moral responsibility and immortality? Should this happen or seem to happen, what a raging theological discussion and controversy it would create!

The lesson to learn from all this is that no matter what humankind manages to develop and build, it can never relinquish the moral responsibility to use it well for the common good.

Here is a fable I wrote that illustrates this problem.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/bob_robots.swf{/rokbox}

Sunday, 23 November 2008

【地籁】陶瓷的歌唱

There is a growing number of movies and TV episodes that tell of conflicts between human intelligence and the artificial intelligence designed by humans for the control of human-like robots, machines that simulate human activity. A scenario envisioned by many scientists is to develop and manufacture humanoid robots that look and act, even feel and think as humans do. These humanoids would then be available to perform human tasks freeing humans for leisure activities. So long as there are no problems in the programs that control the robots, everything goes well. But suppose that some bad humans program the robots to attack and enslave the rest of mankind so they become the masters of the world maintaining complete control over the robots.

Another deviation depicted in stories is that the digital intelligence planted in robots develops into an independent intelligence no longer under human control and the robots then eliminate the humans to take over the world for themselves. Of course, in all the stories in the end some humans manage to instill a virus into the robot’s cyber system or come up with some bright idea that enables them to overcome the robots and restore the human domination.

In any case the age of cybernetics is here to stay and more and more sophisticated robots are being developed. I don’t understand the digital electronic program control systems or the complicated mechanical mechanisms that respond so accurately to computer control, but it fills me with awe.

Take for instance, the action of a human dashing at top speed through a heavily wooded forest with no path or level ground. It requires a keen eye to anticipate obstacles, an intelligence to transform what is seen into decisions about where to place the feet and directions to the muscles and nerves that will control the motion of the limbs and maintain bodily balance as I dash on without slowing down or injury. A human’s neurological, muscular and skeletal systems have developed over the years and he or she has the advantage of years of walking and running experience, but a robot has to start from scratch. First the mechanical structure of limbs, joints and movements, then the computer system has to be programmed to turn the images that come through the sensors of the visual system into commands that regulate every moving part so that the robot dashes forward without injury or fall. If successful, it can be cloned and reproduced.

Even more complicated are robotic representations of human emotions and intelligence. Is there some invisible line that no mechanical human-made creature can ever cross? Christians who accept the possibility of evolution believe that at some point in the upward evolution of some primate, the conditions were finally right for God to endow the creature with a soul and humankind was born with intelligence, free will, conscience, immortality and the moral responsibility to do good and avoid evil.

Is it possible that humans could develop the art of making robots to the point that conditions are just right for God to give them souls, endowing them with intelligence, free will, conscience, moral responsibility and immortality? Should this happen or seem to happen, what a raging theological discussion and controversy it would create!

The lesson to learn from all this is that no matter what humankind manages to develop and build, it can never relinquish the moral responsibility to use it well for the common good.

Here is a fable I wrote that illustrates this problem.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/bob_robots.swf{/rokbox}

Sunday, 23 November 2008

【地籟】陶瓷的歌唱

There is a growing number of movies and TV episodes that tell of conflicts between human intelligence and the artificial intelligence designed by humans for the control of human-like robots, machines that simulate human activity. A scenario envisioned by many scientists is to develop and manufacture humanoid robots that look and act, even feel and think as humans do. These humanoids would then be available to perform human tasks freeing humans for leisure activities. So long as there are no problems in the programs that control the robots, everything goes well. But suppose that some bad humans program the robots to attack and enslave the rest of mankind so they become the masters of the world maintaining complete control over the robots.

Another deviation depicted in stories is that the digital intelligence planted in robots develops into an independent intelligence no longer under human control and the robots then eliminate the humans to take over the world for themselves. Of course, in all the stories in the end some humans manage to instill a virus into the robot’s cyber system or come up with some bright idea that enables them to overcome the robots and restore the human domination.

In any case the age of cybernetics is here to stay and more and more sophisticated robots are being developed. I don’t understand the digital electronic program control systems or the complicated mechanical mechanisms that respond so accurately to computer control, but it fills me with awe.

Take for instance, the action of a human dashing at top speed through a heavily wooded forest with no path or level ground. It requires a keen eye to anticipate obstacles, an intelligence to transform what is seen into decisions about where to place the feet and directions to the muscles and nerves that will control the motion of the limbs and maintain bodily balance as I dash on without slowing down or injury. A human’s neurological, muscular and skeletal systems have developed over the years and he or she has the advantage of years of walking and running experience, but a robot has to start from scratch. First the mechanical structure of limbs, joints and movements, then the computer system has to be programmed to turn the images that come through the sensors of the visual system into commands that regulate every moving part so that the robot dashes forward without injury or fall. If successful, it can be cloned and reproduced.

Even more complicated are robotic representations of human emotions and intelligence. Is there some invisible line that no mechanical human-made creature can ever cross? Christians who accept the possibility of evolution believe that at some point in the upward evolution of some primate, the conditions were finally right for God to endow the creature with a soul and humankind was born with intelligence, free will, conscience, immortality and the moral responsibility to do good and avoid evil.

Is it possible that humans could develop the art of making robots to the point that conditions are just right for God to give them souls, endowing them with intelligence, free will, conscience, moral responsibility and immortality? Should this happen or seem to happen, what a raging theological discussion and controversy it would create!

The lesson to learn from all this is that no matter what humankind manages to develop and build, it can never relinquish the moral responsibility to use it well for the common good.

Here is a fable I wrote that illustrates this problem.

Attached media :
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_en.jpg|}media/articles/bob_robots.swf{/rokbox}

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